HOME:  Dismissive Reviews in Education Policy Research            
  Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Funders Link1
1 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Despite the topic's importance, surprisingly little scholarship has focused on long-term changes in the size of the achievement gap between students from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Our new research presented here, attempts to fill this void ..."", pp. 1-2 Dismissive The Achievement Gap Fails to Close: Half century of testing shows persistent divide between haves and have-nots Education Next, Summer 2019, 19(3) Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute https://www.educationnext.org/achievement-gap-fails-close-half-century-testing-shows-persistent-divide/
2 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "Previous research on effective teachers has focused largely on student test score gains in math and reading in the year in which the teacher teaches the student. This research has shown that a high value-added teacher improves student short-term achievement (e.g., Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor, 2007; Goldhaber, 2007; Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain, 2005) and can have long-term impacts on college attendance, income and other adult outcomes (Chetty, Friedman, and Rockoff, 2014).", p.1 Dismissive Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
3 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "An emerging literature sheds light on teachers’ impact on students’ non-achievement outcomes (e.g., Gershenson, 2016; Jackson, 2018; Kraft, 2017).", p.1 Dismissive Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
4 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "The only study looking at non-achievement measures for high school teachers, Jackson (2018), estimates 9th gradeteachers’ effects on a composite measure of student GPA, on-time grade completion, suspensions and full-day attendance.", p.1 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
5 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb " ... we directly test whether teacher value-added to attendance has predictive power forstudent long-term outcomes above and beyond teachers’ impact on student test scores. Only Jackson (2018) has looked at longer-run outcomes.", p.3 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
6 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "The prior literature has hypothesized about the role of teachersin encouraging or discouraging absences, though very little empirical work has addressed this relationship directly.", p.6 Dismissive Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
7 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "The only study looking at non-achievement measures for high school teachers, Jackson (2018), estimated 9th grade teachers’ effects on a composite measure of student GPA, on-time grade completion, suspensions and full-day attendance in North Carolina.", p.7 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
8 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "An extension of Jackson (2018), our study is only the second study that is able to estimate teachers’effect on student non-test score outcomes and then link this measure to student long-run outcomes.", p.33 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
9 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "While other studies have assessed teachers’contribution to attendance and find a distinction between teachers who contribute to attendance and those that contribute to achievement, ours is the first along a number of dimensions." p.33–34 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
10 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "... both critics and proponents of international and national testing often fail to differentiate among alternative forms and uses of testing, leading to a confused debate."  Denigrating Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation & (3) NBER funders http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Bergbauer%2BHanushek%2BWoessmann%202018%20NBER%20w24836.pdf
11 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "For example, in the United States consideration of testing is mostly restricted to such accountability systems as exemplified by No Child Left Behind (NCLB)." Dismissive Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation & (3) NBER funders http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Bergbauer%2BHanushek%2BWoessmann%202018%20NBER%20w24836.pdf
12 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "While there have been previous evaluations of the impact of accountability systems, largely within the United States (Figlio and Loeb (2011)), it is unclear how to generalize from these." Dismissive Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation & (3) NBER funders http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Bergbauer%2BHanushek%2BWoessmann%202018%20NBER%20w24836.pdf
13 Matthew Ronfeldt Kavita Kapadia Matsko, Hillary Greene Nolan, Michelle Reininger "The search for an empirical basis upon which to make the case for program effectiveness was heightened in the 1990s when alternative pathway policies gained momentum, and university-based preparation pathways faced increased scrutiny. At the time, no such empirical base existed to link preservice preparation to graduates’ workforce outcomes." Dismissive Who Knows if our Teachers are Prepared?  p.1 CEPA Working Paper No. 18-01, Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis Spencer Foundation  
14 Matthew Ronfeldt Kavita Kapadia Matsko, Hillary Greene Nolan, Michelle Reininger "To our knowledge, no prior studies have examined convergent validity – that measures of self-perceived preparedness are positively related to observable measures of instructional effectiveness." Dismissive Who Knows if our Teachers are Prepared?  p.1 CEPA Working Paper No. 18-01, Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis Spencer Foundation  
15 Matthew Ronfeldt Kavita Kapadia Matsko, Hillary Greene Nolan, Michelle Reininger "Only in the past two decades have scholars tried to answer this question by linking different preparation programs or features of preparation to workforce outcomes among graduates, including employment, retention, and measures of instructional effectiveness." Dismissive Who Knows if our Teachers are Prepared?  p.2 CEPA Working Paper No. 18-01, Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis Spencer Foundation  
16 Daphna Bassok Thomas Dee, Scott Latham "However, we know little about whether these accountability reforms operate as theorized."  Dismissive The Effects of Accountability Incentives in Early Childhood Education, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 23859, Issued in September 2017 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w23859
17 Daphna Bassok Thomas Dee, Scott Latham "This study provides the first empirical evidence on this question using data from North Carolina, a state with a mature QRIS." 1stness The Effects of Accountability Incentives in Early Childhood Education, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 23859, Issued in September 2017 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w23859
18 Camille R. Whitney Christopher Candelaria "This article examines effects of NCLB on socioemotional outcomes, a topic that has generated much speculation but little research to date." Dismissive The effects of No Child Left Behind on children's socioemotional outcomes, p.1 AERA Open, July-September 2017, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1 –21. DOI: 10.1177/2332858417726324 U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (Grant #R305B090016) http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417726324
19 Camille R. Whitney Christopher Candelaria "However, few rigorous large-scale quantitative studies have examined whether high-stakes standardized testing affects socioemotional outcomes." Denigrating The effects of No Child Left Behind on children's socioemotional outcomes, p.1 AERA Open, July-September 2017, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1 –21. DOI: 10.1177/2332858417726324 U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (Grant #R305B090016) http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417726324
20 Camille R. Whitney Christopher Candelaria "In this article, we aim to address this gap in the literature…" Dismissive The effects of No Child Left Behind on children's socioemotional outcomes, p.1 AERA Open, July-September 2017, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1 –21. DOI: 10.1177/2332858417726324 U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (Grant #R305B090016) http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417726324
21 Camille R. Whitney Christopher Candelaria "This article contributes to the literature by addressing a gap in our knowledge of the effect of high-stakes testing on students' socioemotional outcomes." Dismissive The effects of No Child Left Behind on children's socioemotional outcomes, p.4 AERA Open, July-September 2017, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1 –21. DOI: 10.1177/2332858417726324 U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (Grant #R305B090016) http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417726324
22 Camille R. Whitney Christopher Candelaria "In addition, this article contributes new findings based on…" 1stness The effects of No Child Left Behind on children's socioemotional outcomes, p.4 AERA Open, July-September 2017, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1 –21. DOI: 10.1177/2332858417726324 U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (Grant #R305B090016) http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417726324
23 Matt Barnum Sean Reardon (by email) “There is a general consensus in the research that high school exit exams increase dropout rates, [but] there is little or no evidence that they improve achievement or raise wages of students following high school.”  Dismissive The Exit Exam Paradox: Did States Raise Standards So High They Then Had to Lower the Bar to Graduate? The 74, June 12, 2016 The 74 funders (4) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-exit-exam-paradox-did-states-raise-standards-so-high-they-then-had-to-lower-the-bar-to-graduate/  
24 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "An extensive theoretical and qualitative literature stresses the promise of instructional practices and content aligned with the cultural experiences of minority students. ... However, the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of these courses is limited." Dismissive The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
25 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "... the available quantitative evidence on the causal effects of ES courses (and, culturally relevant pedagogy, in general) on student outcomes is limited, ... This study provides such evidence …" Denigrating The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
26 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "While the expansion of ES courses illustrates both their appeal and concerns, the quantitative evidence on their effects is relatively limited. Furthermore, the evidence that is available relies on research designs that cannot necessarily support credible causal inference." Dismissive, Denigrating The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
27 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of any type of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) in a quantitative study that supports credible causal inferences." 1stness The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
28 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold Student performance differs greatly across countries, but little is known about the role of teacher quality in explaining these differences. New international data from the PIAAC survey of adult skills allow quantifying country-specific teacher skills in numeracy and literacy for the first time. Dismissive The Impact of Teacher Skills on Student Performance across Countries, Abstract CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
29 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold While previous studies stressed the importance of institutional features of the schooling systems in explaining these differences, the potential role of teacher quality has remained largely unexplored. This paper investigates the extent to which differences in measured teacher skills across the most developed countries can explain international differences in student performance. Denigrating The Impact of Teacher Skills on Student Performance across Countries, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
30 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold Our analysis exploits new international data in order to test rigorously these hypotheses and conclusions. Using recent international data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), we can for the first time quantify differences in teacher skills in numeracy and literacy. 1stness The Impact of Teacher Skills on Student Performance across Countries, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
31 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann The skills of the population are generally viewed as a key ingredient in modern knowledge based economies (e.g., Hanushek and Woessmann (2008)). However, existing evidence on the returns to skills in the labor market is surprisingly limited, coming almost exclusively from earnings of early-career workers in the United States. As a result, any sense of how rewards to skills evolve over the work life or of how they might differ across economies is absent Dismissive Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
32 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann New international data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) dramatically changes the ability to understand how economies value skills. Using these data, this paper provides new insights into the value of skills in different economic settings by developing estimates of the earnings returns to cognitive skills across the entire labor force for 23 countries. Dismissive Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
33 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann While assessments of the achievement of students are common, tested students are seldom followed from school into the labor market where the impact of differential skills can be observed. Denigrating Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
34 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann Bowles, Gintis, and Osborne (2001) provide an early survey of studies of achievement effects, and Hanushek and Woessmann (2008) and Hanushek and Rivkin (2012) survey more recent evidence. Dismissive Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
35 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold "Differences in teacher quality are commonly cited as a key determinant of the huge international student performance gaps. However, convincing evidence on this relationship is still lacking, in part because it is unclear how to measure teacher quality consistently across countries." Abstract Denigrating The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher
cognitive skills and student performance
Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-06 Harvard Kennedy School https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG14_06_Hanushek_Piopiunik_Wiederhold.pdf
36 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold "But less considered is how the overall skills of a nation feed back into the skills of teachers. This paper investigates…" p.1 Dismissive The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher
cognitive skills and student performance
Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-06 Harvard Kennedy School https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG14_06_Hanushek_Piopiunik_Wiederhold.pdf
37 Gregory F. Branch Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin "Yet until very recently there was little rigorous research demonstrating the importance of principal quality for student outcomes, much less the specific practices that cause some principals to be more successful than others. As is often the case in education policy discussions, we have relied on anecdotes instead." Dismissive, Denigrating School leaders matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals Education Next, Winter 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/school-leaders-matter/
38 Gregory F. Branch Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin "Strong leadership is viewed as especially important for revitalization of failing schools. To date, however, this discussion has been largely uninformed by systematic analysis of principals’ impact on student outcomes." Dismissive, Denigrating School leaders matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals Education Next, Winter 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/school-leaders-matter/
39 Eric Bettinger   "Coshocton is the first study in economics to focus on financial incentives for student achievement in primary schools." 1stness PAYING TO LEARN: THE EFFECT OF FINANCIAL INCENTIVES ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEST SCORES NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 16333 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w16333
40 Susanna Loeb Luke C. Miller, Katherine O. Strunk "Research on the effects of such policies is still in the early stages, and more attention is needed to determine the effectiveness of states' professional development policies." Dismissive Teacher Professional Development and Education Throughout Teachers' Careers, abstract Education Finance and Policy   https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/edfp.2009.4.2.212
41 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes. This project addresses this critical issue..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute  
42 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...approximately one-third of entering postsecondary students require remedial or developmental work before entering college-level courses. However, little is known about the causal impact of remediation on student outcomes. ...This project..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute  
43 Sean F. Reardon Nicole Arshan, Allison Ateberry, Michal Kurlaender "The effects of exit exam policies, however, remain somewhat unclear, despite a number of recent studies." Dismissive High Stakes, No Effects: Effects of Failing the California High School Exit Exam, p.2 Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association Forum of Sociology, Barcelona, Spain, September 5‐8, 2008 The research reported here was supported by a grant from the James Irvine Foundation and by the Hewlett Foundation through a grant to the Institute for Research on Educational Policy and Practice at Stanford University.  
44 Sean F. Reardon Nicole Arshan, Allison Ateberry, Michal Kurlaender "Fewer studies have estimated the effects of failing a high stakes exit exam on subsequent student academic outcomes. Several early studies in this area relied on student‐level data to estimate the effect of initially failing an exit exam on high school completion." Dismissive High Stakes, No Effects: Effects of Failing the California High School Exit Exam, pp.9-10 Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association Forum of Sociology, Barcelona, Spain, September 5‐8, 2008 The research reported here was supported by a grant from the James Irvine Foundation and by the Hewlett Foundation through a grant to the Institute for Research on Educational Policy and Practice at Stanford University.  
45 Sean F. Reardon Nicole Arshan, Allison Ateberry, Michal Kurlaender "Each of the two early papers" [1989 and 1996] "described above rely on regression adjustment to estimate the effects of failing an exit exam." Dismissive High Stakes, No Effects: Effects of Failing the California High School Exit Exam, pp.9-10 Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association Forum of Sociology, Barcelona, Spain, September 5‐8, 2008 The research reported here was supported by a grant from the James Irvine Foundation and by the Hewlett Foundation through a grant to the Institute for Research on Educational Policy and Practice at Stanford University.  
46 Sean F. Reardon Nicole Arshan, Allison Ateberry, Michal Kurlaender "Both of these recent papers provide significant improvements to our knowledge of the effects of exit exams on student persistence and graduation. ...In fact, there is little evidence on the effects of exit exams on achievement. One exception is Jacob (2001)." Denigrating High Stakes, No Effects: Effects of Failing the California High School Exit Exam, p.11 Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association Forum of Sociology, Barcelona, Spain, September 5‐8, 2008 "The research reported here was supported by a grant from the James Irvine Foundation and by the Hewlett Foundation through a grant to the Institute for Research on Educational Policy and Practice at Stanford University."  
47 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The final strand of relevant literature pertains to accountability itself. ... Much of the work is very new and has not appeared in journals yet. The available studies generally support the view that accountability has had a positive effect on student outcomes, although the limited observations introduce some uncertainty (Carnoy & Loeb, 2002; Hanushek & Raymond, 2003b; Jacob, 2003; Peterson & West, 2003)." Dismissive Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?, p.300 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 297–327 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
48 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The existing analyses of accountability and state differences in performance (Carnoy & Loeb, 2002; Hanushek & Raymond, 2003b), ... " Dismissive Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?, p.300 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 297–327 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
49 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "States began experimenting with school accountability systems during the 1980s, but the decade of 1990s began the age of accountability." Dismissive Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?, p.306 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 297–327 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
50 Thomas S. Dee Benjamin J. Keys "Despite widespread pessimism among educators about whether merit pay systems can effectively reward good teachers, most of the limited empirical evidence has been surprisingly positive." Dismissive Dollars and sense: What a Tennessee experiment tells us about merit pay Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/dollars-and-sense/
51 Thomas S. Dee   "However, we actually know very little about how differences between a teacher’s race and those of her students affect the learning environment. This study…" Dismissive The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
52 Thomas S. Dee   "However, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence on the relationship between students’ exposure to teachers of their own race and their subsequent academic performance." Dismissive The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
53 Thomas S. Dee   "And the available studies, all of which rely on observational data to compare the test scores of students with different kinds of teachers, actually find that having a teacher of the same race has little impact. However, the inferences based on conventional data sets could be quite misleading. For example, if lower-performing black students are more likely to be assigned to black teachers, the effects of such teachers will be underestimated." Denigrating The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
54 Thomas S. Dee   "This study presents new evidence on the test-score consequences of a teacher’s race by…" 1stness The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
55 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "Adoption of statewide accountability systems for schools has been one of the most striking reforms in American education policy in the past twenty-five years. The change in focus away from inputs and processes and toward out comes marks a dramatic shift in orientation. And yet we know little so far about how well these systems work. The lack of evidence on accountability...", p.406 Dismissive The Effect of School Accountability Systems on the Level and Distribution of Student Achievement Journal of the European Economic Association April–May 2004 2(2–3):406 – 415    
56 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The difficulty is that little progress has been made in describing explicitly the different policies, regulations, and incentives that might be important in determining student performance." Dismissive The Effect of School Accountability Systems on the Level and Distribution of Student Achievement
Journal of the European Economic Association April–May 2004 2(2–3):406 – 415    
57 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, abstract Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
58 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "However, despite the proliferation of remediation, little is known about its effects on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.1 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
59 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate on remediation and the thousands of underprepared students who enter the nation’s higher education institutions each year, little is known about the effects of remediation on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.2 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
60 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "After assessing the literature on remediation, the Ohio Board of Regents (2001) concluded that there were no benchmarks by which to judge the success of higher education's remediation efforts. Likewise, two reviews of the literature on remedial and developmental education found the bulk of studies to be seriously flawed methodologically (O’Hear and MacDonald, 1995; Boylan and Saxon, 1999). ... As noted by Phipps (1998), “conjecture and criticism have filled the void created by the lack of basic information.” Denigrating SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, pp.2-3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
61 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "The lack of analysis on the effects of remediation is partly due to a lack of data." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, pp.2-3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
62 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...this paper addresses a hole in the literature and discusses how higher education attempts to assimilate under prepared students and train them for future college-level work and labor market success. " Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
63 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Additionally, given the system-wide nature of the data, we are able to distinguish between students who withdraw from school altogether and those who transfer to any other Ohio public colleges, an improvement over the information available in most studies." Denigrating SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.4 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
64 Eric Bettinger   "The Pell Grant program is the largest means-tested financial assistance available to postsecondary students across the United States, yet researchers have only limited evidence on the causal effects of these grants." Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, abstract NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
65 Eric Bettinger   "Yet despite this continued expansion of Pell, researchers have only limited evidence on the causal effects of these grants." Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, p.1 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
66 Thomas S. Dee   "The available evidence on the influence of minimum-competency exams and higher curricular standards on educational attainment and employability is not only scant but often contradictory." Dismissive Learning to earn: How high standards affect graduation and employment Education Next, Summer 2003 / Vol. 3, No. 3 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/learningtoearn/
67 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond, Paul E. Peterson (Ed.), Martin R. West (Ed.) "While research on the outcomes of accountability systems is growing rapidly, it still represents a young and highly selective body of work." Dismissive "Lessons about the Design of State Accountability Systems."  in No Child Left Behind? The Politics and Practice of Accountability, Washington, DC: Brookings, 2003, pp. 126-151. (2) Brookings Institution funders  
68 Eric A. Hanushek reported by Lynn Olson "Most of the evidence is unpublished at this point and the answers that exist are partial at best." Dismissive Accountability Studies Find Mixed Impact on Achievement Olson, Lynn, Education Week. June 19, p.13, 2002. (1) Education Week funders  
69 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "While research on the outcomes of accountability systems is growing rapidly, it still represents a young and highly selective body of work." Dismissive "Lessons about the Design of State Accountability Systems."  Paper prepared for "Taking Account of Accountability: Assessing Policy and Politics" Harvard University. June 9-11, 2002.    
70 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "While research on the outcomes of accountability systems is growing rapidly, it still represents a young and highly selective body of work." Dismissive "Improving Educational Quality: How Best to Evaluate Our Schools?"
Paper prepared for "Education in the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World." Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. June 2002.    
71 Sean F. Reardon   "Virtually no evidence exists about the merits or flaws of MCTs [minimum competency tests]" Dismissive Eighth grade minimum competency testing and early high school dropout patterns Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY, April 8, 1996    
                 
  IRONIES:              
  Eric A. Hanushek   “Some academics are so eager to step out on policy issues that they don’t bother to find out what the reality is.”   as quoted by Rick Hess in “Professor Pallas’s Inept, Irresponsible Attack on DCPS” Education Week on the Web, August 2, 2010,    http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/rick_hess_straight_up/2010/08/professor_pallass_inept_irresponsible_attack_on_dcps.html
  Eric A. Hanushek Martin R. West (Ed.), Paul E. Peterson (Ed.) “Presumably they realize that their selective reporting of evidence yields reports that are not credible. . . .” p.95   School Money Trials: The Legal Pursuit of Educational Adequacy Brookings, 2007    
  Eric A. Hanushek   "Instead of weighing the full evidence before it in the neutral manner expected of an NRC committee, the panel selectively uses available evidence and then twists it into bizarre, one might say biased, conclusions."   "Grinding the anti-testing ax: More bias than evidence behind NRC panel’s conclusions" Education Next, 12(2)   http://educationnext.org/grinding-the-antitesting-ax/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "The committee considers a review from 2008 of 14 studies, and 4 studies conducted after that review. ... The NRC committee apparently felt no need to look any further and ignored the fact that a majority of the 14 studies would not come close to meeting its standard of enabling a “causal conclusion.”   "Grinding the anti-testing ax: More bias than evidence behind NRC panel’s conclusions" Education Next, 12(2)   http://educationnext.org/grinding-the-antitesting-ax/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "When it comes to gathering together the general literature, both theoretical and empirical, on the use of incentives in various contexts, the committee’s work is solidly constructed."   "Grinding the anti-testing ax: More bias than evidence behind NRC panel’s conclusions" Education Next, 12(2)   http://educationnext.org/grinding-the-antitesting-ax/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "The desire for publicity apparently pushes some researchers to prepackage their own sound bites."   "RAND versus RAND: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us? by Stephen P. Klein et al."  Education Next, 1(1)   http://educationnext.org/randversusrand/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "Journalists tend to judge a study’s quality—particularly a complicated statistical study—by its conclusions and by an undue emphasis on the study’s source rather than the strength of its analysis."   "RAND versus RAND: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us? by Stephen P. Klein et al."  Education Next, 1(1)   http://educationnext.org/randversusrand/
                 
      Author cites (and accepts as fact without checking) someone elses dismissive review          
      Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work          
      Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.          
                 
  (1) [as of January, 2019] Education Week funders [https://www.edweek.org/info/about/philanthropy.html]  "Our Funders": Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Carnegie Corporation of New York; Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation; Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust; Jack Kent Cooke Foundation; Joyce Foundation; Charles Stewart Mott Foundation; NoVo Foundation; Noyce Foundation; Raikes Foundation; Schott Foundation for Public Education; Wallace Foundation; Walton Family Foundation.       
  (2) Brookings funders [https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/2018-annual-report.pdf] (just those giving more than $10,000 in 2018 are included) $2,000,000 and Above:  Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation The Hutchins Family Foundation Philip Knight Embassy of the State of Qatar David M. Rubenstein $1,000,000–$1,999,999 Laura and John Arnold Foundation BHP Foundation Robert Bosch Stiftung The William and Flora HewlettFoundation The Kresge Foundation The John D. & Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation Government of Norway Alfred P. Sloan Foundation State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company University of Nevada, Las Vegas $500,000–$999,999 Anonymous Ben S. Bernanke Richard C. Blum and the Honorable Dianne Feinstein Annie E. Casey Foundation Steve and Roberta Denning Ford Foundation Robert Wood Johnson Foundation JPMorgan Chase & Co. LEGO Foundation Liberty Mutual Group National Institutes of Health Porticus Cheryl and Haim Saban Leonard D. Schaeffer John Hazen White, Jr. Tracy R. Wolstencroft $250,000–$499,999 Anonymous (3) Altman/Kazickas Foundation Laura and John Arnold Foundation Australian Government, Departmentof Foreign Affairs & Trade Bank of America Daniel Berger Brevan Howard Carnegie Corporation of New York Betsy Z. Cohen Howard Cox Democracy Fund Government of Denmark Exxon Mobil Corporation Google, Inc. Andrew Gundlach, Anna-Maria andStephen Kellen Foundation HCA Healthcare The Jenesis Group Decision Support Center, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia† Charles Koch Foundation The Henry Luce Foundation Microsoft Corporation Morgan Stanley New Venture Fund Northrup Grumman Corporation Rio Tinto The Rockefeller Foundation Searle Freedom Trust The Stockholm Chamber of Commerce Surdna Foundation Taipei Economic and CulturalRepresentative Office in theUnited States Tides Center The Andrew H. and Ann R. Tisch Foundation Turkish Industry and Business Assn. Antoine van Agtmael, Sunrise Foundation The Walton Family Foundation Chi Zhang $100,000–$249,999 Anonymous (5) Robert John Abernethy Paul Achleitner and Deutsche Bank Ahearn Family Foundation Allen & Company LLC American Chemistry Council Arconic Foundation Banco de Sabadell S.A. Barrick Gold Corporation Jane and Alan Batkin Hakeem Belo-Osagie BlackRock Financial Management, Inc. Ambassador Paul L. Cejas Central Indiana Corporate Partnership and BioCrossroads Anla Cheng Chevron Daimler Corporation The Davis Foundation Paul Desmarais, Jr. Haluk Dinćer Jian Ding Hanzade Dog ̆ an Boyner, Dog ̆ an Group Cheryl Cohen Effron and Blair W. Effron Equinor Facebook Alfonso Fanjul Fidelity Investments David and Marianna Fisher Genentech - A Member of The Roche Group Mark T. Gallogly and Elizabeth B. Strickler The George Gund Foundation The Heinz Endowments Antti Herlin, KONE Corporation Roger Hertog Hewlett-Packard Company Pete Higgins Henry L. Hillman Foundation Intesa Sanpaolo Jacobs Foundation Gail and Benjamin Jacobs Kenneth M. Jacobs Japan Bank for International Cooperation John Templeton Foundation Hosein Khajeh-Hosseiny, PhD Korea Development Institute The Korea Foundation Lenovo Group Limited Andrónico Luksic Lili Lynton Howard Marks Mars, Incorporated The McKnight Foundation Mercyhurst University Eric M. Mindich Aditya Mittal The Morningstar Foundation Charles Stewart Mott Foundation Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, America National Center for the Middle Market National Science Foundation Alexander Navab Omidyar Network Open Society Foundations Oregon Department of Transportation PepsiCo Pritzker Traubert Family Foundation Repsol Foundation Brian C. Rogers Robert E. Rubin Schlosstein-Hartley Family Foundation Eric E. Schmidt Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association Sequoia Capital China Advisors Limited Shell Arne and Ruth Sorenson Ramez Sousou Robert Stewart Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs Tang Xiaodan John L. Thornton Ercument Tokat Total S.A. U.S. Department of the Treasury Volvo Research and Educational Foundations David B. and Lynne Weinberg Jiyi Weng John O. Wynne Ezra K. Zilkha $50,000–$99,999 Anonymous Accton Technology Corporation All Nippon Airways Co., Ltd. Amazon.com American Institutes for Research Association of Equipment Manufacturers AT&T Rahul Bajaj Rex J. Bates BP plc Rosenberg Institute of Global Finance at Brandeis International Business School Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation Laurel Britton The Andrea and Charles Bronfman Philanthropies W. Edmund Clark The Clearing House Association ClimateWorks Foundation Abby Joseph Cohen Jonathan E. Colby Art Collins Comcast NBCUniversal Cornerstone Macro The Crown Family Alan and Lauren Dachs Eberstadt Kuffner Fund Elevate Credit, Inc. The Lee and Juliet Folger Fund Bart Friedman and Wendy A. Stein FutureWei Technologies, Inc. Benjamin D. Harburg Phil Harvey William A. Haseltine I Squared Capital Insurance Information Institute Intel Corporation Embassy of Japan Jefferies, LLC Tom Kaplan, Wolfgang Puck Fine Dining Group Cash, Contracts, and In-Kind Contributions Sheryl and Chip Kaye Samer Khoury Tawfic Khoury Amy Liu John G. Macfarlane III John Manley Medtronic, Inc. Cathy E. Minehan The Leo Model Foundation Ambrose Monell Foundation Mario M. Morino Nihon Keizai Shimbun-sya (NIKKEI) Noble Energy Nomura Foundation Norges Bank Investment Management Palantir Technologies The Peter G. Peterson Foundation Point72 Asset Management John G. Popp Public Health Law Center at Mitchell Hamline School of Law Marian Puig Thomas C. Ramey and Perrin Ireland Joseph L. Rice III Stephen Robert James D. Robinson III Rockefeller Brothers Fund Christopher Rokos Victoria and Roger Sant Robert B. Sheh Dr. Fay L. Shutzer and William A. Shutzer Government of Switzerland Tellurian, Inc. Lynn Thoman and the Leon Lowenstein Foundation UBS AG UN University World Institute for Development Economics Research Department for International Development, United Kingdom United Technologies Corporation University of Chicago University of Toronto The Urban Institute Visa Inc. Alex C. Walker Foundation Marcus Wallenberg, Foundation Asset Management (FAM) Claude Wasserstein Katie Henderson, The Water Research Foundation Beatrice W. and Anthony Welters The Ralph C. Wilson, Jr. Foundation Stephen M. Wolf Daniel H. Yergin and Angela Stent D.B. Zwirn Foundation $25,000–$49,999 Anonymous (2) Aberdeen Standard Investment ACTwireless Actagon AB Airlines for America John R. Allen Eileen A. Aptman Aramco Services Company†† Arnhold Foundation Central Intelligence Agency Charter Communications, Inc. Citi The Civic Council of Greater Kansas City H. Rodgin Cohen The Commonwealth Fund Susan Crown andWilliam C. Kunkler III Cummins Inc. DLI North America (Dai-ichi Life Group) European Recovery Program (ERP), German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy Evercore Partners Embassy of France Barbara H. Franklin Funders’ Network for Smart Growth and Livable Communities, Inc. Garfield Foundation Jeff Gore Teresa Heinz Kerry Hitachi, Ltd. Honda North America, Inc. Indra Inter-American Development Bank The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) The Israel Institute George M. James Japan Air Self Defense Force Japan Economic Foundation The Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership Japan International Cooperation Agency James A. Johnson George Kellner Jeffrey D. Lapin Sara Grootwassink Lewis Linden Trust for Conservation Lockheed Martin Corporation Marine Corps University Marubeni America Corporation The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. Municipality of The Hague Laxman Narasimhan NCTA - The Internet and Television Association Lisa O’Kelly Permanent Secretariat of the Community of Democracies Raytheon Company Marcia Riklis San Diego Regional Economic Development Corporation Katherine Stahl in Honor of Pietro Nivola Krishen Sud Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Temasek Holdings United Airlines, Inc. U.S. Department of the Air Force U.S. Department of the Army U.S. Department of the Navy John Usdan Verizon Communications Washington University in St. Louis The World Bank $10,000–$24,999 Anonymous (2) Aflac Yavuz Ahiska Astra Capital Management WaĎl O. Bayazid Kelvin Beachum, Jr. Linda and Jim Beers Franklin M. Berger David K. Berler The Boeing Company Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Anders Brag The Brodsky Family Foundation California HealthCare Foundation Morris Clarke Corning Incorporated Foundation The Council for the United States and Italy Arthur B. Culvahouse, Jr. The Curtis Family Foundation Davis Polk & Wardwell, LLP Porter Dawson Laura A. DeFelice Deloitte LLP Emsi R.S. Evans Foundation Philip and Diana Faillace Patricia Farman-Farmaian Roger C. Faxon Forum for the Future of Higher Education Mitzi and Cyrus Freidheim David Friend John L. Furth Gardner Grout Foundation Helene Gayle GEICO General Motors Foundation Marilyn and Michael Glosserman Rob Granieri Patrick W. and Sheila Proby Gross Agnes Gund Hellman Foundation Higher Heights ITOCHU International Inc. Joel and Ricki Kanter Cassandra Kelly Brenda R. Kiessling Jackie and Andrew Klaber Lee Klingenstein Robert and Arlene Kogod Korea International Trade Association Ned Lamont Toby Devan Lewis Lumos Foundation USA Bertil P. Lundqvist Marketplace Lending Association John P. McCormick Arjay Miller* Mary Miller Mitsubishi Corporation (Americas) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. Mitsui & Co. (U.S.A.), Inc. Mona Foundation Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Northern Trust NTT Corp. Gordon and Dailey Pattee Mary Carr Patton Dina and George Perry Marc Peters The Honorable Edward A. and Diane L. Powell Purdue Pharma L.P. Israel Roizman Charles Rossotti Jon Rotenstreich Frederic and Susan Rubinstein Ricardo and Leslie Salmon Jonathan Schaffzin Michael L. Schler Shimizu Corporation Stanley S. Shuman Emily and Robert E. Smith Sojitz Corporation of America Esta Eiger Stecher Andrew P. Steffan Sumitomo Corporation of Americas The Nelson S. Talbott Foundation Larry D. Thompson Toshiba America, Inc. Ranvir Trehan Universidad EAFIT, Colombia VOX Global Seymour and Kathleen Weingarten Joan and Harry Weintrob
  (3) [as of January, 2019] Some NBER funders [https://www.nber.org/CorporateSupporters2018.pdf] Contributing $20,000 - $25,000: AIG; Bank for International Settlements; Brevan Howard; Capital Group Companies; ExxonMobil; Fidelity Management & Research; General Motors Foundation; Goldman Sachs; Google, Inc.;  Johnson & Johnson; JP Morgan Chase Institute; Koret Foundation; Pfizer, Inc.; Vanguard; Anonymous (2).  Contributing $10,000 - $19,999: Fuller & Thaler Asset Management; Insurance Information Institute.  Contributing $5,000 - $9,999: Central Bank Research Associates; Norges Bank Investment Management.  Contributing Less Than $5,000: Allen Sinai; Board of Governors of Federal Reserve System; Federal Reserve District Banks (12); Francis Schott.  Contributions to Support the NBER Summer Institute: Contributing $50,000 to $75,000: Mohamed El-Erian. Contributing $10,000 to $19,999: Bank of England; Bank of France; Bank of Germany; Bank of Italy; Bank of Japan; Bank of Netherlands; Monetary Authority of Singapore; Reserve Bank of India.  Contributions to Support the NBER Digitization Initiative: Contributing $25,000 - $50,000: Amazon; Tides Foundation.        
  (4) [as of January, 2019] See  https://www.the74million.org/supporters/  "Partners" include:  Triad Foundation, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, Park Avenue Charitable Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation, Bloomberg Philanthropies, California Community Foundation, Doris & Donald Fisher Fund, Gen Next Foundation, Karsh Family Foundation, Jon Sackler, William E. Simon Foundation, Charles Strauch, Walton Family Foundation.