HOME:  Dismissive Reviews in Education Policy Research            
  Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Funders Link1
1 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Given the topic’s importance, it is surprising that trends in SES-achievement gaps are so poorly documented." p.1 Dismissive Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764
2 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "The empirical basis for these conclusions is limited." p.2 Dismissive Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764
3 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "We add to this sparse literature by providing the first comprehensive analysis of long-run trends in SES-achievement gaps from psychometrically linked data sets." p.2 1stness Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764
4 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Despite the topic's importance, surprisingly little scholarship has focused on long-term changes in the size of the achievement gap between students from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Our new research presented here, attempts to fill this void ..."", pp. 1-2 Dismissive The Achievement Gap Fails to Close: Half century of testing shows persistent divide between haves and have-nots Education Next, Summer 2019, 19(3) Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute https://www.educationnext.org/achievement-gap-fails-close-half-century-testing-shows-persistent-divide/
5 Susanna Loeb Erika Byun "Despite ongoing political tensions surrounding the CCSS and the lack of strong empirical studies on the effects of the standards (Polikoff 2017), the adoption of CCSS signals a step toward a consistent framework for educating students across the nation." p.99 Dismissive Testing, Accountability, and School Improvement Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science AAPSS funders https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0002716219839929
6 Susanna Loeb Erika Byun "Several studies have found variation across states with respect to the content of standards and expectations (Porter, Polikoff, and Smithson 2009; Finn, Julian and Petrilli 2006; Wilson and Berenthal 2005). However, providing causal evidence of standards’ quality and their impact on students is difficult for various technical reasons (Polikoff 2017)." p.99 Dismissive Testing, Accountability, and School Improvement Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science AAPSS funders https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0002716219839929
7 Susanna Loeb Erika Byun "However, research on the impacts of state accountability on nontested domains is quite limited, ... " p,103 Dismissive Testing, Accountability, and School Improvement Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science AAPSS funders https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0002716219839929
8 Susanna Loeb Erika Byun "As such, test-based accountability may indeed be leading to an inverse relationship between measured and unmeasured goals, but the empirical literature to date does not provide strong evidence of this." p.103 Dismissive Testing, Accountability, and School Improvement Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science AAPSS funders https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0002716219839929
9 Susanna Loeb Erika Byun "However, research on the validity and comprehensiveness of observational measures is far less developed than on value-added measures." p.105 Denigrating Testing, Accountability, and School Improvement Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science AAPSS funders https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0002716219839929
10 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "Previous research on effective teachers has focused largely on student test score gains in math and reading in the year in which the teacher teaches the student. This research has shown that a high value-added teacher improves student short-term achievement (e.g., Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor, 2007; Goldhaber, 2007; Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain, 2005) and can have long-term impacts on college attendance, income and other adult outcomes (Chetty, Friedman, and Rockoff, 2014).", p.1 Dismissive Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf
11 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "An emerging literature sheds light on teachers’ impact on students’ non-achievement outcomes (e.g., Gershenson, 2016; Jackson, 2018; Kraft, 2017).", p.1 Dismissive Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf
12 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "The only study looking at non-achievement measures for high school teachers, Jackson (2018), estimates 9th gradeteachers’ effects on a composite measure of student GPA, on-time grade completion, suspensions and full-day attendance.", p.1 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf
13 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb " ... we directly test whether teacher value-added to attendance has predictive power forstudent long-term outcomes above and beyond teachers’ impact on student test scores. Only Jackson (2018) has looked at longer-run outcomes.", p.3 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf
14 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "The prior literature has hypothesized about the role of teachersin encouraging or discouraging absences, though very little empirical work has addressed this relationship directly.", p.6 Dismissive Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf
15 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "The only study looking at non-achievement measures for high school teachers, Jackson (2018), estimated 9th grade teachers’ effects on a composite measure of student GPA, on-time grade completion, suspensions and full-day attendance in North Carolina.", p.7 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf
16 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "An extension of Jackson (2018), our study is only the second study that is able to estimate teachers’effect on student non-test score outcomes and then link this measure to student long-run outcomes.", p.33 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf
17 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "While other studies have assessed teachers’contribution to attendance and find a distinction between teachers who contribute to attendance and those that contribute to achievement, ours is the first along a number of dimensions." p.33–34 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf
18 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "... both critics and proponents of international and national testing often fail to differentiate among alternative forms and uses of testing, leading to a confused debate."  Denigrating Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation & (3) NBER funders http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Bergbauer%2BHanushek%2BWoessmann%202018%20NBER%20w24836.pdf
19 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "For example, in the United States consideration of testing is mostly restricted to such accountability systems as exemplified by No Child Left Behind (NCLB)." Dismissive Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation & (3) NBER funders http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Bergbauer%2BHanushek%2BWoessmann%202018%20NBER%20w24836.pdf
20 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "While there have been previous evaluations of the impact of accountability systems, largely within the United States (Figlio and Loeb (2011)), it is unclear how to generalize from these." Dismissive Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation & (3) NBER funders http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Bergbauer%2BHanushek%2BWoessmann%202018%20NBER%20w24836.pdf
21 Matthew Ronfeldt Kavita Kapadia Matsko, Hillary Greene Nolan, Michelle Reininger "The search for an empirical basis upon which to make the case for program effectiveness was heightened in the 1990s when alternative pathway policies gained momentum, and university-based preparation pathways faced increased scrutiny. At the time, no such empirical base existed to link preservice preparation to graduates’ workforce outcomes." Dismissive Who Knows if our Teachers are Prepared?  p.1 CEPA Working Paper No. 18-01, Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis Spencer Foundation  
22 Matthew Ronfeldt Kavita Kapadia Matsko, Hillary Greene Nolan, Michelle Reininger "To our knowledge, no prior studies have examined convergent validity – that measures of self-perceived preparedness are positively related to observable measures of instructional effectiveness." Dismissive Who Knows if our Teachers are Prepared?  p.1 CEPA Working Paper No. 18-01, Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis Spencer Foundation  
23 Matthew Ronfeldt Kavita Kapadia Matsko, Hillary Greene Nolan, Michelle Reininger "Only in the past two decades have scholars tried to answer this question by linking different preparation programs or features of preparation to workforce outcomes among graduates, including employment, retention, and measures of instructional effectiveness." Dismissive Who Knows if our Teachers are Prepared?  p.2 CEPA Working Paper No. 18-01, Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis Spencer Foundation  
24 Daphna Bassok Thomas Dee, Scott Latham "However, we know little about whether these accountability reforms operate as theorized."  Dismissive The Effects of Accountability Incentives in Early Childhood Education, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 23859, Issued in September 2017 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w23859
25 Daphna Bassok Thomas Dee, Scott Latham "This study provides the first empirical evidence on this question using data from North Carolina, a state with a mature QRIS." 1stness The Effects of Accountability Incentives in Early Childhood Education, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 23859, Issued in September 2017 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w23859
26 Camille R. Whitney Christopher Candelaria "This article examines effects of NCLB on socioemotional outcomes, a topic that has generated much speculation but little research to date." Dismissive The effects of No Child Left Behind on children's socioemotional outcomes, p.1 AERA Open, July-September 2017, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1 –21. DOI: 10.1177/2332858417726324 U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (Grant #R305B090016) http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417726324
27 Camille R. Whitney Christopher Candelaria "However, few rigorous large-scale quantitative studies have examined whether high-stakes standardized testing affects socioemotional outcomes." Denigrating The effects of No Child Left Behind on children's socioemotional outcomes, p.1 AERA Open, July-September 2017, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1 –21. DOI: 10.1177/2332858417726324 U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (Grant #R305B090016) http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417726324
28 Camille R. Whitney Christopher Candelaria "In this article, we aim to address this gap in the literature…" Dismissive The effects of No Child Left Behind on children's socioemotional outcomes, p.1 AERA Open, July-September 2017, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1 –21. DOI: 10.1177/2332858417726324 U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (Grant #R305B090016) http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417726324
29 Camille R. Whitney Christopher Candelaria "This article contributes to the literature by addressing a gap in our knowledge of the effect of high-stakes testing on students' socioemotional outcomes." Dismissive The effects of No Child Left Behind on children's socioemotional outcomes, p.4 AERA Open, July-September 2017, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1 –21. DOI: 10.1177/2332858417726324 U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (Grant #R305B090016) http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417726324
30 Camille R. Whitney Christopher Candelaria "In addition, this article contributes new findings based on…" 1stness The effects of No Child Left Behind on children's socioemotional outcomes, p.4 AERA Open, July-September 2017, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1 –21. DOI: 10.1177/2332858417726324 U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (Grant #R305B090016) http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417726324
31 Matt Barnum Sean Reardon (by email) “There is a general consensus in the research that high school exit exams increase dropout rates, [but] there is little or no evidence that they improve achievement or raise wages of students following high school.”  Dismissive The Exit Exam Paradox: Did States Raise Standards So High They Then Had to Lower the Bar to Graduate? The 74, June 12, 2016 The 74 funders (4) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-exit-exam-paradox-did-states-raise-standards-so-high-they-then-had-to-lower-the-bar-to-graduate/
32 Alia Wong Thomas S. Dee, Will Dobbie, Brian A. Jacob, & Jonah Rockoff "The prevalence of test-score manipulation in the United States is well-documented. ... What hasn’t been well documented are the causes and consequences of such manipulation." Dismissive Why Would a Teacher Cheat? Educators often choose to inflate students' scores on standardized tests, and the motivations—and effects—indicate that a little deception isn't always a bad thing.  The Atlantic,  April 27, 2016 (3) NBER funders https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/04/why-teachers-cheat/480039/
33 Thomas S. Dee Tbrian A. Jacob, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "…despite widespread concerns over test validity and the manipulation of scores, we know little about the factors that lead educators to manipulate student scores (e.g., accountability policies versus individual students traits). Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
34 Thomas S. Dee Tbrian A. Jacob, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "…there is little empirical evidence on whether test score manipulation has any long-run consequences for students' educational outcomes and performance gaps by race, ethnicity, and gender." Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
35 Thomas S. Dee Tbrian A. Jacob, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "Our results contribute to an emerging literature that documents both the moral hazard that can be created by test-scoring procedures…. In early work, Jacob and Levitt (2003) find... Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.3 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
36 Thomas S. Dee Tbrian A. Jacob, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "Our results contribute to an emerging literature that documents both the moral hazard that can be created by test-scoring procedures…. In early work, Jacob and Levitt (2003) find... Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.3 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
37 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "Policymakers and researchers … have sought policies to provide all children with effective teachers. The selective retention of effectice teachers has been one of the most-discussed  strategies that may contribute to this goal. … However, we know relatively little about how such policies would work in practice. In particular, the capacity of districts to identify effective teachers at the hiring stage is limited (Boyd, et al., 2008, Rockoff & Speroni, 2010, Rockoff, et al., 2011)."  Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
38 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "Futhermore, research and practice have only recently begun making progress on accurately and reliably assessing teacher effectiveness." Denigrating Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
39 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "However, we are unaware of any research that documents how the patterns of teacher turnover created by such policies (i.e., the attrition of teachers sanctioned for low performance, other teachers choosing to leave, and the hiring of new teachers) influence student achievement. In this study, we provide such evidence...'" 1stness Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
40 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "There is only limited evidence that financial incentives make a difference in retaining teachers generally (Clotfelter, Glennie, Ladd, & Vigdor, 2008; Glazerman & Seifullah, 2012) and high-performing teachers specifically (Dee & Wyckoff, 2015).  Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
41 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "In the absence of real-world evidence on the effects of policies that improve teacher composition, researchers hace simulated the effects of such policies." Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
42 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "In sum, there is at best limited empirical evidence of the effects of differential retention policies on teacher quality and student achievement. What evidence does directly bear on the issue are simulations dependent on a series of simplifying assumptions." Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
43 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "An extensive theoretical and qualitative literature stresses the promise of instructional practices and content aligned with the cultural experiences of minority students. ... However, the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of these courses is limited." Dismissive The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
44 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "... the available quantitative evidence on the causal effects of ES courses (and, culturally relevant pedagogy, in general) on student outcomes is limited, ... This study provides such evidence …" Denigrating The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
45 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "While the expansion of ES courses illustrates both their appeal and concerns, the quantitative evidence on their effects is relatively limited. Furthermore, the evidence that is available relies on research designs that cannot necessarily support credible causal inference." Dismissive, Denigrating The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
46 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of any type of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) in a quantitative study that supports credible causal inferences." 1stness The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
47 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold Student performance differs greatly across countries, but little is known about the role of teacher quality in explaining these differences. New international data from the PIAAC survey of adult skills allow quantifying country-specific teacher skills in numeracy and literacy for the first time. Dismissive The Impact of Teacher Skills on Student Performance across Countries, Abstract CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
48 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold While previous studies stressed the importance of institutional features of the schooling systems in explaining these differences, the potential role of teacher quality has remained largely unexplored. This paper investigates the extent to which differences in measured teacher skills across the most developed countries can explain international differences in student performance. Denigrating The Impact of Teacher Skills on Student Performance across Countries, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
49 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold Our analysis exploits new international data in order to test rigorously these hypotheses and conclusions. Using recent international data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), we can for the first time quantify differences in teacher skills in numeracy and literacy. 1stness The Impact of Teacher Skills on Student Performance across Countries, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
50 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann The skills of the population are generally viewed as a key ingredient in modern knowledge based economies (e.g., Hanushek and Woessmann (2008)). However, existing evidence on the returns to skills in the labor market is surprisingly limited, coming almost exclusively from earnings of early-career workers in the United States. As a result, any sense of how rewards to skills evolve over the work life or of how they might differ across economies is absent Dismissive Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
51 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann New international data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) dramatically changes the ability to understand how economies value skills. Using these data, this paper provides new insights into the value of skills in different economic settings by developing estimates of the earnings returns to cognitive skills across the entire labor force for 23 countries. Dismissive Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
52 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann While assessments of the achievement of students are common, tested students are seldom followed from school into the labor market where the impact of differential skills can be observed. Denigrating Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
53 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann Bowles, Gintis, and Osborne (2001) provide an early survey of studies of achievement effects, and Hanushek and Woessmann (2008) and Hanushek and Rivkin (2012) survey more recent evidence. Dismissive Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
54 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold "Differences in teacher quality are commonly cited as a key determinant of the huge international student performance gaps. However, convincing evidence on this relationship is still lacking, in part because it is unclear how to measure teacher quality consistently across countries." Abstract Denigrating The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher
cognitive skills and student performance
Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-06 Harvard Kennedy School https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG14_06_Hanushek_Piopiunik_Wiederhold.pdf
55 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold "But less considered is how the overall skills of a nation feed back into the skills of teachers. This paper investigates…" p.1 Dismissive The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher
cognitive skills and student performance
Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-06 Harvard Kennedy School https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG14_06_Hanushek_Piopiunik_Wiederhold.pdf
56 Gregory F. Branch Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin "Yet until very recently there was little rigorous research demonstrating the importance of principal quality for student outcomes, much less the specific practices that cause some principals to be more successful than others. As is often the case in education policy discussions, we have relied on anecdotes instead." Dismissive, Denigrating School leaders matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals Education Next, Winter 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/school-leaders-matter/
57 Gregory F. Branch Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin "Strong leadership is viewed as especially important for revitalization of failing schools. To date, however, this discussion has been largely uninformed by systematic analysis of principals’ impact on student outcomes." Dismissive, Denigrating School leaders matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals Education Next, Winter 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/school-leaders-matter/
58 Hoxby, Caroline M.  Christopher Avery “The sheer comprehensiveness and accuracy of our data is [sic] what allow us to form strong hypotheses about why some high-achieving, low-income students are income-typical and others are achievement-typical.” p. 3 1stness The Missing "One-Offs": The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving, Low Income Students  NBER Working Paper 18586, 2012   http://health-equity.pitt.edu/4124/1/THE_MISSING.pdf
59 Hoxby, Caroline M.  Christopher Avery Relative to those studies, our study's strengths are its comprehensiveness; . . .  complete characterization of each U.S. high school; . . . ability to map students; and . . . .use of accurate administrative data. . . .” Denigrating The Missing "One-Offs": The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving, Low Income Students  NBER Working Paper 18586, 2012   http://health-equity.pitt.edu/4124/1/THE_MISSING.pdf
60 Eric Bettinger   "Coshocton is the first study in economics to focus on financial incentives for student achievement in primary schools." 1stness PAYING TO LEARN: THE EFFECT OF FINANCIAL INCENTIVES ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEST SCORES NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 16333 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w16333
61 Matthew Ronfeldt Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb, James Wyckoff "Yet, there exists little empirical evidence for a direct effect of teacher turnover on student achievement (Guin, 2004)." p.1 Dismissive How teacher turnover harms student achievement NBER Working Paper 17176 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w17176
62 Matthew Ronfeldt Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb, James Wyckoff "A growing body of evidence indicates that teachers who produce higher student achievement gains are at least as likely, and sometimes more likely, to stay in schools than their less effective peers (Boyd et al, 2010; Goldhaber, D., Gross, B., and Player, D., 2007; Hanushek & Rivkin, 2010)." p.1 Dismissive How teacher turnover harms student achievement NBER Working Paper 17176 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w17176
63 Matthew Ronfeldt Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb, James Wyckoff " ...we still know very little about the overall effect of attrition on students." p.3 Dismissive How teacher turnover harms student achievement NBER Working Paper 17176 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w17176
64 Matthew Ronfeldt Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb, James Wyckoff "This study finds some of the first empirical evidence for a direct effect of teacher turnover on student achievement." p.17 1stness How teacher turnover harms student achievement NBER Working Paper 17176 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w17176
65 Eric Hanushek   "Unfortunately, direct evidence on the distribution of teacher quality and its impact for disadvantaged students is hard to come by." p.47 Dismissive An effective teacher in every classroom Education Next, Summer 2010 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Haycock%2BHanushek%202010%20EdNext%2010%283%29.pdf
66 Eric Hanushek   "An incentive approach must be the center-piece of improving teacher quality in urban schools ... Unfortunately, we have little experience with how to structure incentives." p.48  Dismissive An effective teacher in every classroom Education Next, Summer 2010 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Haycock%2BHanushek%202010%20EdNext%2010%283%29.pdf
67 Susanna Loeb Luke C. Miller, Katherine O. Strunk "Research on the effects of such policies is still in the early stages, and more attention is needed to determine the effectiveness of states' professional development policies." Dismissive Teacher Professional Development and Education Throughout Teachers' Careers, abstract Education Finance and Policy   https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/edfp.2009.4.2.212
68 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes. This project addresses this critical issue..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute  
69 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...approximately one-third of entering postsecondary students require remedial or developmental work before entering college-level courses. However, little is known about the causal impact of remediation on student outcomes. ...This project..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute  
70 Sean F. Reardon Nicole Arshan, Allison Ateberry, Michal Kurlaender "The effects of exit exam policies, however, remain somewhat unclear, despite a number of recent studies." Dismissive High Stakes, No Effects: Effects of Failing the California High School Exit Exam, p.2 Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association Forum of Sociology, Barcelona, Spain, September 5‐8, 2008 The research reported here was supported by a grant from the James Irvine Foundation and by the Hewlett Foundation through a grant to the Institute for Research on Educational Policy and Practice at Stanford University.  
71 Sean F. Reardon Nicole Arshan, Allison Ateberry, Michal Kurlaender "Fewer studies have estimated the effects of failing a high stakes exit exam on subsequent student academic outcomes. Several early studies in this area relied on student‐level data to estimate the effect of initially failing an exit exam on high school completion." Dismissive High Stakes, No Effects: Effects of Failing the California High School Exit Exam, pp.9-10 Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association Forum of Sociology, Barcelona, Spain, September 5‐8, 2008 The research reported here was supported by a grant from the James Irvine Foundation and by the Hewlett Foundation through a grant to the Institute for Research on Educational Policy and Practice at Stanford University.  
72 Sean F. Reardon Nicole Arshan, Allison Ateberry, Michal Kurlaender "Each of the two early papers" [1989 and 1996] "described above rely on regression adjustment to estimate the effects of failing an exit exam." Dismissive High Stakes, No Effects: Effects of Failing the California High School Exit Exam, pp.9-10 Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association Forum of Sociology, Barcelona, Spain, September 5‐8, 2008 The research reported here was supported by a grant from the James Irvine Foundation and by the Hewlett Foundation through a grant to the Institute for Research on Educational Policy and Practice at Stanford University.  
73 Sean F. Reardon Nicole Arshan, Allison Ateberry, Michal Kurlaender "Both of these recent papers provide significant improvements to our knowledge of the effects of exit exams on student persistence and graduation. ...In fact, there is little evidence on the effects of exit exams on achievement. One exception is Jacob (2001)." Denigrating High Stakes, No Effects: Effects of Failing the California High School Exit Exam, p.11 Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association Forum of Sociology, Barcelona, Spain, September 5‐8, 2008 "The research reported here was supported by a grant from the James Irvine Foundation and by the Hewlett Foundation through a grant to the Institute for Research on Educational Policy and Practice at Stanford University."  
74 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The final strand of relevant literature pertains to accountability itself. ... Much of the work is very new and has not appeared in journals yet. The available studies generally support the view that accountability has had a positive effect on student outcomes, although the limited observations introduce some uncertainty (Carnoy & Loeb, 2002; Hanushek & Raymond, 2003b; Jacob, 2003; Peterson & West, 2003)." Dismissive Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?, p.300 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 297–327 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
75 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The existing analyses of accountability and state differences in performance (Carnoy & Loeb, 2002; Hanushek & Raymond, 2003b), ... " Dismissive Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?, p.300 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 297–327 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
76 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "States began experimenting with school accountability systems during the 1980s, but the decade of 1990s began the age of accountability." Dismissive Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?, p.306 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 297–327 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
77 Eric A. Hanushek   "We now have direct evidence that school accountability leads to positive results. In an analysis of state differerences in student performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Haushek and Raymond (2004) show that states adopting accountability systems have shown better performance. However, this better performance only results from accountability systems that attach consequences for performance to the schools." 1stness Why the Federal Government Should be Involved in School Accountability. P.170 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 1, 167–178 (2005) "This work was funded by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
78 Eric A. Hanushek   "The results indicae that states introducing consequential accountability showed improvements of some 0.2 standard deviations in eighth-grade NAEP scores over those that did not employ consequential accountability (holding other things constant). No other policy of the last decades has shown a similar sustained improvement for broad population groups." Dismissive Why the Federal Government Should be Involved in School Accountability. P.170 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 1, 167–178 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
79 Thomas S. Dee Benjamin J. Keys "Despite widespread pessimism among educators about whether merit pay systems can effectively reward good teachers, most of the limited empirical evidence has been surprisingly positive." Dismissive Dollars and sense: What a Tennessee experiment tells us about merit pay Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/dollars-and-sense/
80 Thomas S. Dee   "However, we actually know very little about how differences between a teacher’s race and those of her students affect the learning environment. This study…" Dismissive The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
81 Thomas S. Dee   "However, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence on the relationship between students’ exposure to teachers of their own race and their subsequent academic performance." Dismissive The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
82 Thomas S. Dee   "And the available studies, all of which rely on observational data to compare the test scores of students with different kinds of teachers, actually find that having a teacher of the same race has little impact. However, the inferences based on conventional data sets could be quite misleading. For example, if lower-performing black students are more likely to be assigned to black teachers, the effects of such teachers will be underestimated." Denigrating The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
83 Thomas S. Dee   "This study presents new evidence on the test-score consequences of a teacher’s race by…" 1stness The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
84 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "Adoption of statewide accountability systems for schools has been one of the most striking reforms in American education policy in the past twenty-five years. The change in focus away from inputs and processes and toward out comes marks a dramatic shift in orientation. And yet we know little so far about how well these systems work. The lack of evidence on accountability...", p.406 Dismissive The Effect of School Accountability Systems on the Level and Distribution of Student Achievement Journal of the European Economic Association April–May 2004 2(2–3):406 – 415    
85 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The difficulty is that little progress has been made in describing explicitly the different policies, regulations, and incentives that might be important in determining student performance." Dismissive The Effect of School Accountability Systems on the Level and Distribution of Student Achievement
Journal of the European Economic Association April–May 2004 2(2–3):406 – 415    
86 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, abstract Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
87 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "However, despite the proliferation of remediation, little is known about its effects on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.1 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
88 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate on remediation and the thousands of underprepared students who enter the nation’s higher education institutions each year, little is known about the effects of remediation on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.2 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
89 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "After assessing the literature on remediation, the Ohio Board of Regents (2001) concluded that there were no benchmarks by which to judge the success of higher education's remediation efforts. Likewise, two reviews of the literature on remedial and developmental education found the bulk of studies to be seriously flawed methodologically (O’Hear and MacDonald, 1995; Boylan and Saxon, 1999). ... As noted by Phipps (1998), “conjecture and criticism have filled the void created by the lack of basic information.” Denigrating SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, pp.2-3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
90 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "The lack of analysis on the effects of remediation is partly due to a lack of data." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, pp.2-3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
91 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...this paper addresses a hole in the literature and discusses how higher education attempts to assimilate under prepared students and train them for future college-level work and labor market success. " Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
92 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Additionally, given the system-wide nature of the data, we are able to distinguish between students who withdraw from school altogether and those who transfer to any other Ohio public colleges, an improvement over the information available in most studies." Denigrating SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.4 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. & (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
93 Eric Bettinger   "The Pell Grant program is the largest means-tested financial assistance available to postsecondary students across the United States, yet researchers have only limited evidence on the causal effects of these grants." Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, abstract NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
94 Eric Bettinger   "Yet despite this continued expansion of Pell, researchers have only limited evidence on the causal effects of these grants." Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, p.1 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
95 Thomas S. Dee   "The available evidence on the influence of minimum-competency exams and higher curricular standards on educational attainment and employability is not only scant but often contradictory." Dismissive Learning to earn: How high standards affect graduation and employment Education Next, Summer 2003 / Vol. 3, No. 3 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/learningtoearn/
96 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond, Paul E. Peterson (Ed.), Martin R. West (Ed.) "While research on the outcomes of accountability systems is growing rapidly, it still represents a young and highly selective body of work." Dismissive "Lessons about the Design of State Accountability Systems."  in No Child Left Behind? The Politics and Practice of Accountability, Washington, DC: Brookings, 2003, pp. 126-151. (2) Brookings Institution funders  
97 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “The productivity implications of choice have been sadly neglected by the literature on school choice.” p. 293 Dismissive School Choice and School Productivity. Could School Choice Be a Tide that Lifts All Boats? The Economics of School Choice, January 2003 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10091.pdf
98 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “Although a great deal of research has dealt indirectly with school productivity (most famously, the “does money matter?” debate), productivity has been neglected by research on school choice.” p. 287 Dismissive School Choice and School Productivity. Could School Choice Be a Tide that Lifts All Boats? The Economics of School Choice, January 2003 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10091.pdf
99 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “[T]his body of research [on school productivity] is often silent about this fact (and almost never controls for it).” p. 295 Dismissive, Denigrating School Choice and School Productivity. Could School Choice Be a Tide that Lifts All Boats? The Economics of School Choice, January 2003 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10091.pdf
100 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “Endogenous school choice in areas with bad public schools generates bias if a researcher naively estimates the effect of choice on productivity.” p. 303 Denigrating School Choice and School Productivity. Could School Choice Be a Tide that Lifts All Boats? The Economics of School Choice, January 2003 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10091.pdf
101 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “There are, however, several problems with using wages and income to measure achievement, including a paucity of data linked to schools, questionable validity for women, and the impossibility of analyzing a reform until at least twenty years after its occurrence.” p. 305 Denigrating School Choice and School Productivity. Could School Choice Be a Tide that Lifts All Boats? The Economics of School Choice, January 2003 (3) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10091.pdf
102                
103 Thomas S. Dee   "Though the adoption of these reforms [standards-based accountability from 1975 on] occurred with much fanfare, there has been surprisingly little study since then of their consequences." p.3 Dismissive "Standards and Student Outcomes: Lessons from the 'First Wave' of Education Refomr Prepared for "Taking Account of Accountability: Assessing Politics and Policy" Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, June 10–11, 2002 "I would like to thank the U.S. Department of Education's National Institute on Educational Governance, Finance, Policymaking and Management for its financial support."  
104 Thomas S. Dee   "Given that one might expect that the first-wave reforms have been subjected to exhaustive empirical evaluaion. Surprisingly, there is relatively little empirical evidence on the consequences of these policies that would allow us to sort through these conflicting theoretical predictions." p.5 Dismissive "Standards and Student Outcomes: Lessons from the 'First Wave' of Education Refomr Prepared for "Taking Account of Accountability: Assessing Politics and Policy" Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, June 10–11, 2002 "I would like to thank the U.S. Department of Education's National Institute on Educational Governance, Finance, Policymaking and Management for its financial support."  
105 Thomas S. Dee   "Furthermore, what evidence is available is often directly contradictory. Most of the prior studies have focuses on how minimum competency tests influenced student achievement as measured by test scores." p.6 Denigrating "Standards and Student Outcomes: Lessons from the 'First Wave' of Education Refomr Prepared for "Taking Account of Accountability: Assessing Politics and Policy" Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, June 10–11, 2002 "I would like to thank the U.S. Department of Education's National Institute on Educational Governance, Finance, Policymaking and Management for its financial support."  
106 Thomas S. Dee   "The evidence on how course-taking standards influenced achievement and educational attainment is more limited." p.6 Dismissive "Standards and Student Outcomes: Lessons from the 'First Wave' of Education Refomr Prepared for "Taking Account of Accountability: Assessing Politics and Policy" Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, June 10–11, 2002 "I would like to thank the U.S. Department of Education's National Institute on Educational Governance, Finance, Policymaking and Management for its financial support."  
107 Thomas S. Dee   "The available evidence on how CGR influenced educational attainment is also mixed." p.6 Denigrating "Standards and Student Outcomes: Lessons from the 'First Wave' of Education Refomr Prepared for "Taking Account of Accountability: Assessing Politics and Policy" Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, June 10–11, 2002 "I would like to thank the U.S. Department of Education's National Institute on Educational Governance, Finance, Policymaking and Management for its financial support."  
108 Thomas S. Dee   "A drawback of prior empirical studies is that they have not directly addressed claims about whether these graduation standards would be particularly harmful or beneficial to minority students." p.7 Denigrating "Standards and Student Outcomes: Lessons from the 'First Wave' of Education Refomr Prepared for "Taking Account of Accountability: Assessing Politics and Policy" Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, June 10–11, 2002 "I would like to thank the U.S. Department of Education's National Institute on Educational Governance, Finance, Policymaking and Management for its financial support."  
109 Eric A. Hanushek reported by Lynn Olson "Most of the evidence is unpublished at this point and the answers that exist are partial at best." Dismissive Accountability Studies Find Mixed Impact on Achievement Education Week. June 19, p.13, 2002. (1) Education Week funders  
110 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "If one is interested in outcomes, one should focus on outcomes. As simple as this principle might be, it has not been recognized previously." p.81 Dismissive, Denigrating Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
111 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "At the outset, it is important to recognize that there is little experience in the design and operation of educational accountability systems and their elements." pp.99-1000 Dismissive Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
112 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "We do not know much about how best to accumulate knowledge or even about which directions schools might take to improve." p.100 Dismissive Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
113 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "Again, little is known about any collateral impact of accountability structures and their resulting incentives on the efficiency of resource usage." p.102 Dismissive Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
114 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "past reearch has produced no clear indication of what precisely helps students learn. Continuing research into the determinants of performance may be part of the anwer, but so far such research has yet to be successful, and it is unlikely to provide any immediate guidance." pp.102-103 Dismissive, Denigrating Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
115 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "All current testing is focused on meeting an initial set of standards that are assumed to reflect the set of knowledge that adequately prepares students for their postschooling years. There is surprisingly little attempt to match this with subsequent performance. The research on this is also quite thin." p.103 Dismissive, Denigrating Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
116 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "Concentrating on student performance is a very important and positive change in how we view schools. Nonetheless, although the movement toward performance-based systems offers the best chance for improvement, the journey has just begun." p.104 Dismissive Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
117 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "While research on the outcomes of accountability systems is growing rapidly, it still represents a young and highly selective body of work." Dismissive "Lessons about the Design of State Accountability Systems."  Paper prepared for "Taking Account of Accountability: Assessing Policy and Politics" Harvard University. June 9-11, 2002.    
118 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "While research on the outcomes of accountability systems is growing rapidly, it still represents a young and highly selective body of work." Dismissive "Improving Educational Quality: How Best to Evaluate Our Schools?"
Paper prepared for "Education in the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World." Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. June 2002.    
119 Hoxby, Caroline M.    Up to this point, researchers have focused on test quality and simply assumed that the programs are expensive enough to crowd out other policies, such as class size reduction or higher teacher salaries. Researchers have also assumed that it is so expensive to have a good accountability program (which includes good comprehensive tests, well-defined standards, an effective report card system, and safeguards that prevent cheating and teaching the test) that only poor accountability systems will be affordable.” (abstract) Denigrating The Cost of Accountability  NBER Working Paper No. 8855, April 2002   NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w8855.pdf
120 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The few available analyses of the distribution of student performance after changes in funding distributions required by courts also have shown little evidence of narrowed variation in student results (Downes, 1992; Hanushek and Somers, 2001)." p.367 Dismissive "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
121 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "Again, little is known about any collateral impact of accountability structures and their resulting incentives on the efficiency of resource usage." p.381 Dismissive "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
122 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "Past research into the determinants of student performance—whether looking at teacher characteristics, specialized programs, or management and leadership—has not produced clear indications of how systematically to improve student performance." p.382 Dismissive, Denigrating "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
123 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "... on–going research into the specific determinants of performance has yet to be very successful and is unlikely to provide any immediate guidance to school personnel. This inherent and potentially serious weakness must be recognized." p.382 Dismissive, Denigrating "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
124 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "All testing is focused internally, and there is surprisingly little attempt to match this with subsequent performance. The research on this is also quite thin." p.382 Dismissive "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
125 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "There is increasing research suggesting that performance on cognitive tests is strongly related to labor market earnings, but this research has not been very careful in distinguishing among alternative performance measures (and their underlying standards of knowledge)." p.382 Dismissive, Denigrating "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
126 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "However, the newness to education of accountability for outcomes means that the reality of current reporting and accountability systems will need refinement. In many cases we do not have adequate experience, theory, or empirical evidence yet to judge the actual implementation." p.383 Dismissive "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
127 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “[E]vidence on the nature of human-capital spillovers is very poor, so that we do not even know whether contact between better and worse students raises the achievement of all students . . . .” p. 1211 Dismissive Does Competition among Public Schools Benefit Students and Taxpayers? The American Economic Review, Vol. 90, No. 5 (Dec., 2000)   http://faculty.smu.edu/millimet/classes/eco7321/papers/hoxby.pdf
128 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “In some previous studies, insufficient attention to these matters has resulted in confused evidence about the effects of choice.” p. 1214 Dismissive Does Competition among Public Schools Benefit Students and Taxpayers? The American Economic Review, Vol. 90, No. 5 (Dec., 2000)   http://faculty.smu.edu/millimet/classes/eco7321/papers/hoxby.pdf
129 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “[T]hough researchers often claim that the variation they use is not endogenous to student achievement, they rarely go on to explain where the variation does come from.” p. 1241 Denigrating The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 2000   http://people.terry.uga.edu/mustard/courses/e4250/class-size-hoxby.pdf
130 Hoxby, Caroline M.    Few studies actually include all of the terms in equation (1), but most studies include some subset of them.” p. 1245 Dismissive The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 2000   http://people.terry.uga.edu/mustard/courses/e4250/class-size-hoxby.pdf
131 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “Since my data are actually panel data, I am able to employ a within-district method (described below) that is more powerful and less subject to bias than the cross-section method.” p. 1253 Denigrating The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 2000   http://people.terry.uga.edu/mustard/courses/e4250/class-size-hoxby.pdf
132 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “Although some credible estimates of peer effects do exist, people often rely on evidence that is seriously biased by selection.” p. 2 Denigrating Peer Effects in the Classroom: Learning from Gender and Race Variation NBER Working Paper 7867, August 2000  NBER funders http://piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/oldfichiers051211/enseig/ecoineg/articl/Hoxby2000.pdf
133 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “The pedagogical literature is inconsistent: both the “one bad apple” and the “one shining light” models are popular.” p. 3 Denigrating Peer Effects in the Classroom: Learning from Gender and Race Variation NBER Working Paper 7867, August 2000  NBER funders http://piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/oldfichiers051211/enseig/ecoineg/articl/Hoxby2000.pdf
134 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “I introduce two empirical strategies that, even under these conditions, generate estimates of peer effects that are credibly free of selection bias.” p.3 Denigrating Peer Effects in the Classroom: Learning from Gender and Race Variation NBER Working Paper 7867, August 2000  NBER funders http://piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/oldfichiers051211/enseig/ecoineg/articl/Hoxby2000.pdf
135 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “The empirical strategies in this paper are, I would argue, an improvement on many previous methods of identifying peer effects in schools.” p. 4 1stness Peer Effects in the Classroom: Learning from Gender and Race Variation NBER Working Paper 7867, August 2000  NBER funders http://piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/oldfichiers051211/enseig/ecoineg/articl/Hoxby2000.pdf
136 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Since the release of Equality of Educational Opportunity (the "Coleman Report") in 1966, the educational policy debate has often been reduced to a series of simplistic arguments and assertions about the role of schools in producing achievement. The character of this debate has itself been heavily influenced by confusing and conflicting research. While this research has suffered from inadequate data, imprecise definitions of the underlying problems and issues have been as important in obscuring the fundamental policy choices." p.1 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
137 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "In comparison to studies that use only a small sample of students from each school, these data provide much more precise estimates of school average test scores and test score gains." p. 4 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
138 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "While some past work has pursued portions of this, the limitations of previous data required the imposition of extremely strong assumptions to identify the various components of achievement gain." pp.6–7 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
139 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Many studies use the between school variation as a percentage of the total . . . to measure the contribution of school quality to achievement. This ratio is not, however, a clear indication of the possibilities for policy manipulation, . . ." pp. 8–9 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
140 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "[S]tudies that use the between school variance component as an upper bound for the potential contribution of schooling may seriously underestimate the importance of schools." p. 11 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
141 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Like most educational studies, this estimation relies on self-reported school data, and these data are prone to significant reporting errors. Unlike most studies, however, we have access to longitudinal information on key data, and therefore we can adjust for inconsistencies that occur over time." p. 23 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
142 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Past research attempts to clarify the impact of schools on student performance have tended to worsen the situation by providing conflicting and unreliable conclusions." p. 31 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
143 Hanushek, Eric A.    "In sum, these studies are of noticeably lower quality than the best-and the typical-study investigating real classroom resources." p. 143 Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
144 Hanushek, Eric A.    "The measures of other school resources also are frequently measured poorly and tend to be available only at the district level." p. 143 Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
145 Hanushek, Eric A.    "In reality, as discussed below, studies involving per-pupil expenditure tend to be the lowest quality studies, and there is substantial reason to believe that even the reported results overstate the true effect of added expenditure." p. 144 Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
146 Hanushek, Eric A.    "Unfortunately, little progress has been made at identifying, defining, or measuring the most important aspects of state policies in tenus of their effect on student performance or the efficiency of resource usage." p. 146 Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
147 Hanushek, Eric A.    "The published literature is particularly susceptible to the claim that it is unrepresentative of all studies that may have been conducted (the so-called publication bias problem)." p. 149 (extract from Hedges 1990) Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
148 Hanushek, Eric A.    "Unfortunately, the original data are seldom available for reanalysis- and even when they are, combining data from different sources can be difficult, which forces a variety of compromises in the aggregation of results." p. 151 Dismissive, Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
149 Hanushek, Eric A.    "Such a description is itself much too simple because we have limited experience with alternative incentive schemes (Hanushek with others, 1994)." p. 155 Dismissive Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
150 Hanushek, Eric A.    "While some studies have undoubtedly been missed in this review, it is virtually impossible that the missed studies would alter the overall conclusions given the numbers of studies reported below." p. 157 Dismissive Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
151 Hanushek, Eric A.    "One crucial aspect is the reliance on selective samples that are biased toward resource effects. They employ a series of arbitrary, but far from innocuous, selection rules in an attempt to make the data fit their methodology, which requires independence of the estimates." p. 159 Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
152 Sean F. Reardon   "Virtually no evidence exists about the merits or flaws of MCTs [minimum competency tests]" Dismissive Eighth grade minimum competency testing and early high school dropout patterns Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY, April 8, 1996    
153 Eric A. Hanushek Erik A. Hanushek, D.W. Jorgenson (Eds.) "The current push for reform is commonly traced to A Nation at Risk.... Since its publication, new reports have come so frequently that it is rare for a major institution not to have its own report and position on education reform. Yet it is startling how little any of the reports, or the refom movement itself, draw upon economic principles in formulating new plans." p.29 Dismissive Outcomes, Costs, and Incentives in Schools Improving America’s schools: The role of incentives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996 National Academy of Sciences funders  
154 Eric A. Hanushek Erik A. Hanushek, D.W. Jorgenson (Eds.) "The most remarkable fact about the range of conceptually appealing performance incentives is that they remain virtually untested. Few examples of their use are available, and, as with the vast majority of new programs instituted in schools, attempts to introduce these various incentive systems are seldom evaluated in any systematic manner." p.43 Dismissive Outcomes, Costs, and Incentives in Schools Improving America’s schools: The role of incentives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996 National Academy of Sciences funders  
155 Eric A. Hanushek Erik A. Hanushek, D.W. Jorgenson (Eds.) "This lack of knowledge about performance systems calls for a broad program of experimentation and evaluation.... Remarkably, evaluation is seldom an integral part of schools today. Any evaluation that is done is much more likely to occur before a program is introduced, rather than affter." p.44 Dismissive, Denigrating Outcomes, Costs, and Incentives in Schools Improving America’s schools: The role of incentives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996 National Academy of Sciences funders  
156 Eric A. Hanushek Erik A. Hanushek, D.W. Jorgenson (Eds.) "While U.S. businesses have frequently lamented the quality of workers they receive from schools, they have never worked closely with schools to define the skills and abilities they seek in prospective workers." p.49 Dismissive Outcomes, Costs, and Incentives in Schools Improving America’s schools: The role of incentives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996 National Academy of Sciences funders  
157 Eric A. Hanushek Dongwook Kim International comparative studies seldom yield conclusive findings. . . . Comparative growth analyses-relying on varying samples, differing analytical foci, and imperfect data-have led to some general findings along with many suggestive answers of questionable reliability. p. 33 Denigrating Schooling, Labor Force Inequality, and Economic Growth NBER Working Paper 5399, December 1995  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w5399.pdf
158 Eric A. Hanushek Dongwook Kim Just as was the case within countries, little evidence suggests  that simple resource policies are likely to improve student (and national) performance. p.34 Dismissive Schooling, Labor Force Inequality, and Economic Growth NBER Working Paper 5399, December 1995  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w5399.pdf
159 Hanushek, Eric A.    Unfortunately, standard textbook formulations or typical industry and aggregate production function specifications provide little direct guidance in educational analysis, . . . p. 1142 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
160 Hanushek, Eric A.    A variety of public finance investigations, urban housing and location studies, and labor economics analyses include at least tangentially some consideration of school quality and performance- but generally these studies do not incorporate the results of direct analyses of schooling. p. 1142 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
161 Hanushek, Eric A.    From the standpoint of production function analyses, there are two fundamental difficulties with existing research into postschooling outcomes. p. 1151 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
162 Hanushek, Eric A.    Attempts to incorporate qualitative measures of schooling into labor market studies have been severely limited by availability of data, by the necessity of using fairly peculiar samples, and by reliance on stringent assumptions about school operations. p. 1151 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
163 Hanushek, Eric A.    In summary, the literature about the relationship between measures of schooling quality and subsequent attainment is ambiguous. The analyses available are often crude empirical forays that are difficult to replicate and to evaluate in a definitive manner. p. 1152 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
164 Hanushek, Eric A.    [T]here is not enough available evidence to determine conclusively which, if any, of these four divergent views are valid. p. 1153 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
165 Hanushek, Eric A.    [S]tudies of lifetime outcomes, while conceptually very relevant to measuring school outputs, have not been particularly illuminating;  . .  p. 1154 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
166 Hanushek, Eric A.    At the individual level, test scores related to ability or achievement have obvious appeal, even though available research provides little guidance about specific kinds of tests or different possible dimensions. p. 1155 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
167 Hanushek, Eric A.    Failure to recognize these points has probably caused the greatest problems in interpreting individual studies. p. 1155 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
168 Hanushek, Eric A.    Unfortunately, little such work is available. p. 1158, n. 20 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
169 Hanushek, Eric A.    Information on salaries and expenditures is less frequently available. p. 1162, n. 32 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
170 Hanushek, Eric A.    Furthermore, given the general biases toward publication of statistically significant estimates, the paucity of statistically significant results is quite notable. p. 1163 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
171 Hanushek, Eric A.    Analyses of these issues unfortunately have not been undertaken in any systematic manner within the context of edu production functions. p. 1163 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
172 Hanushek, Eric A.    Unfortunately, few such studies include measures of school factors. Exceptions are Murnane, Rebecca Maynard, and James Ohls (1981) and Hanushek (1986). p. 1163, n. 35 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
173 Hanushek, Eric A.    The closest thing to a consistent finding.among the studies is that "smarter" teachers, ones who perform well on verbal ability tests, do better in the classroom, but even for that the evidence is not very strong (Hanushek 1981). p. 1164 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
174 Hanushek, Eric A.    Unfortunately, because little information is available about preferences other than performance maximization on the part of schools, it is very difficult to evaluate their influence on the measured efficiency of schools. p. 1166 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
175 Hanushek, Eric A.    It should be pointed out that similar analyses of production functions for private, profit-making industries are not readily available. p. 1166, n. 43 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
176 Hanushek, Eric A.    The point is that we have no evidence of this universally, and thus we have no mandate for making massive changes just to be doing something. p. 1167 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
                 
  IRONIES:              
  Eric A. Hanushek   “Some academics are so eager to step out on policy issues that they don’t bother to find out what the reality is.”   as quoted by Rick Hess in “Professor Pallas’s Inept, Irresponsible Attack on DCPS” Education Week on the Web, August 2, 2010,    http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/rick_hess_straight_up/2010/08/professor_pallass_inept_irresponsible_attack_on_dcps.html
  Eric A. Hanushek Martin R. West (Ed.), Paul E. Peterson (Ed.) “Presumably they realize that their selective reporting of evidence yields reports that are not credible. . . .” p.95   School Money Trials: The Legal Pursuit of Educational Adequacy Brookings, 2007    
  Eric A. Hanushek   "Instead of weighing the full evidence before it in the neutral manner expected of an NRC committee, the panel selectively uses available evidence and then twists it into bizarre, one might say biased, conclusions."   "Grinding the anti-testing ax: More bias than evidence behind NRC panel’s conclusions" Education Next, 12(2)   http://educationnext.org/grinding-the-antitesting-ax/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "The committee considers a review from 2008 of 14 studies, and 4 studies conducted after that review. ... The NRC committee apparently felt no need to look any further and ignored the fact that a majority of the 14 studies would not come close to meeting its standard of enabling a “causal conclusion.”   "Grinding the anti-testing ax: More bias than evidence behind NRC panel’s conclusions" Education Next, 12(2)   http://educationnext.org/grinding-the-antitesting-ax/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "When it comes to gathering together the general literature, both theoretical and empirical, on the use of incentives in various contexts, the committee’s work is solidly constructed."   "Grinding the anti-testing ax: More bias than evidence behind NRC panel’s conclusions" Education Next, 12(2)   http://educationnext.org/grinding-the-antitesting-ax/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "The desire for publicity apparently pushes some researchers to prepackage their own sound bites."   "RAND versus RAND: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us? by Stephen P. Klein et al."  Education Next, 1(1)   http://educationnext.org/randversusrand/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "Journalists tend to judge a study’s quality—particularly a complicated statistical study—by its conclusions and by an undue emphasis on the study’s source rather than the strength of its analysis."   "RAND versus RAND: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us? by Stephen P. Klein et al."  Education Next, 1(1)   http://educationnext.org/randversusrand/
                 
      Author cites (and accepts as fact without checking) someone elses dismissive review          
      Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work          
      Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.          
                 
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Colby Art Collins Comcast NBCUniversal Cornerstone Macro The Crown Family Alan and Lauren Dachs Eberstadt Kuffner Fund Elevate Credit, Inc. The Lee and Juliet Folger Fund Bart Friedman and Wendy A. Stein FutureWei Technologies, Inc. Benjamin D. Harburg Phil Harvey William A. Haseltine I Squared Capital Insurance Information Institute Intel Corporation Embassy of Japan Jefferies, LLC Tom Kaplan, Wolfgang Puck Fine Dining Group Cash, Contracts, and In-Kind Contributions Sheryl and Chip Kaye Samer Khoury Tawfic Khoury Amy Liu John G. Macfarlane III John Manley Medtronic, Inc. Cathy E. Minehan The Leo Model Foundation Ambrose Monell Foundation Mario M. Morino Nihon Keizai Shimbun-sya (NIKKEI) Noble Energy Nomura Foundation Norges Bank Investment Management Palantir Technologies The Peter G. Peterson Foundation Point72 Asset Management John G. Popp Public Health Law Center at Mitchell Hamline School of Law Marian Puig Thomas C. Ramey and Perrin Ireland Joseph L. Rice III Stephen Robert James D. Robinson III Rockefeller Brothers Fund Christopher Rokos Victoria and Roger Sant Robert B. Sheh Dr. Fay L. Shutzer and William A. Shutzer Government of Switzerland Tellurian, Inc. Lynn Thoman and the Leon Lowenstein Foundation UBS AG UN University World Institute for Development Economics Research Department for International Development, United Kingdom United Technologies Corporation University of Chicago University of Toronto The Urban Institute Visa Inc. Alex C. Walker Foundation Marcus Wallenberg, Foundation Asset Management (FAM) Claude Wasserstein Katie Henderson, The Water Research Foundation Beatrice W. and Anthony Welters The Ralph C. Wilson, Jr. Foundation Stephen M. Wolf Daniel H. Yergin and Angela Stent D.B. Zwirn Foundation $25,000–$49,999 Anonymous (2) Aberdeen Standard Investment ACTwireless Actagon AB Airlines for America John R. Allen Eileen A. Aptman Aramco Services Company†† Arnhold Foundation Central Intelligence Agency Charter Communications, Inc. Citi The Civic Council of Greater Kansas City H. Rodgin Cohen The Commonwealth Fund Susan Crown andWilliam C. Kunkler III Cummins Inc. DLI North America (Dai-ichi Life Group) European Recovery Program (ERP), German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy Evercore Partners Embassy of France Barbara H. Franklin Funders’ Network for Smart Growth and Livable Communities, Inc. Garfield Foundation Jeff Gore Teresa Heinz Kerry Hitachi, Ltd. Honda North America, Inc. Indra Inter-American Development Bank The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) The Israel Institute George M. James Japan Air Self Defense Force Japan Economic Foundation The Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership Japan International Cooperation Agency James A. Johnson George Kellner Jeffrey D. Lapin Sara Grootwassink Lewis Linden Trust for Conservation Lockheed Martin Corporation Marine Corps University Marubeni America Corporation The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. Municipality of The Hague Laxman Narasimhan NCTA - The Internet and Television Association Lisa O’Kelly Permanent Secretariat of the Community of Democracies Raytheon Company Marcia Riklis San Diego Regional Economic Development Corporation Katherine Stahl in Honor of Pietro Nivola Krishen Sud Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Temasek Holdings United Airlines, Inc. U.S. Department of the Air Force U.S. Department of the Army U.S. Department of the Navy John Usdan Verizon Communications Washington University in St. Louis The World Bank $10,000–$24,999 Anonymous (2) Aflac Yavuz Ahiska Astra Capital Management Waël O. Bayazid Kelvin Beachum, Jr. Linda and Jim Beers Franklin M. Berger David K. Berler The Boeing Company Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Anders Brag The Brodsky Family Foundation California HealthCare Foundation Morris Clarke Corning Incorporated Foundation The Council for the United States and Italy Arthur B. Culvahouse, Jr. The Curtis Family Foundation Davis Polk & Wardwell, LLP Porter Dawson Laura A. DeFelice Deloitte LLP Emsi R.S. Evans Foundation Philip and Diana Faillace Patricia Farman-Farmaian Roger C. Faxon Forum for the Future of Higher Education Mitzi and Cyrus Freidheim David Friend John L. Furth Gardner Grout Foundation Helene Gayle GEICO General Motors Foundation Marilyn and Michael Glosserman Rob Granieri Patrick W. and Sheila Proby Gross Agnes Gund Hellman Foundation Higher Heights ITOCHU International Inc. Joel and Ricki Kanter Cassandra Kelly Brenda R. Kiessling Jackie and Andrew Klaber Lee Klingenstein Robert and Arlene Kogod Korea International Trade Association Ned Lamont Toby Devan Lewis Lumos Foundation USA Bertil P. Lundqvist Marketplace Lending Association John P. McCormick Arjay Miller* Mary Miller Mitsubishi Corporation (Americas) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. Mitsui & Co. (U.S.A.), Inc. Mona Foundation Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Northern Trust NTT Corp. Gordon and Dailey Pattee Mary Carr Patton Dina and George Perry Marc Peters The Honorable Edward A. and Diane L. Powell Purdue Pharma L.P. Israel Roizman Charles Rossotti Jon Rotenstreich Frederic and Susan Rubinstein Ricardo and Leslie Salmon Jonathan Schaffzin Michael L. Schler Shimizu Corporation Stanley S. Shuman Emily and Robert E. Smith Sojitz Corporation of America Esta Eiger Stecher Andrew P. Steffan Sumitomo Corporation of Americas The Nelson S. Talbott Foundation Larry D. Thompson Toshiba America, Inc. Ranvir Trehan Universidad EAFIT, Colombia VOX Global Seymour and Kathleen Weingarten Joan and Harry Weintrob
  (3) [as of January, 2019] Some NBER funders [https://www.nber.org/CorporateSupporters2018.pdf] Contributing $20,000 - $25,000: AIG; Bank for International Settlements; Brevan Howard; Capital Group Companies; ExxonMobil; Fidelity Management & Research; General Motors Foundation; Goldman Sachs; Google, Inc.;  Johnson & Johnson; JP Morgan Chase Institute; Koret Foundation; Pfizer, Inc.; Vanguard; Anonymous (2).  Contributing $10,000 - $19,999: Fuller & Thaler Asset Management; Insurance Information Institute.  Contributing $5,000 - $9,999: Central Bank Research Associates; Norges Bank Investment Management.  Contributing Less Than $5,000: Allen Sinai; Board of Governors of Federal Reserve System; Federal Reserve District Banks (12); Francis Schott.  Contributions to Support the NBER Summer Institute: Contributing $50,000 to $75,000: Mohamed El-Erian. Contributing $10,000 to $19,999: Bank of England; Bank of France; Bank of Germany; Bank of Italy; Bank of Japan; Bank of Netherlands; Monetary Authority of Singapore; Reserve Bank of India.  Contributions to Support the NBER Digitization Initiative: Contributing $25,000 - $50,000: Amazon; Tides Foundation.        
  (4) [as of January, 2019] See  https://www.the74million.org/supporters/  "Partners" include:  Triad Foundation, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, Park Avenue Charitable Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation, Bloomberg Philanthropies, California Community Foundation, Doris & Donald Fisher Fund, Gen Next Foundation, Karsh Family Foundation, Jon Sackler, William E. Simon Foundation, Charles Strauch, Walton Family Foundation.