HOME:  Dismissive Reviews in Education Policy Research
  Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Funders Link1 Notes Notes2
1 Kate Antonovics, Sandra E. Black, Julie Berry Cullen, and Akiva Yonah Meiselman   "In fact, little is known about the pervasiveness or determinants of ability tracking in the US. To fill this gap … " abstract Dismissive Patterns, Determinants, and Consequences of Ability Tracking: Evidence from Texas Public Schools NBER Working Paper No. 30370, August 2022   https://www.nber.org/papers/w3037
2 Kate Antonovics, Sandra E. Black, Julie Berry Cullen, and Akiva Yonah Meiselman   "In fact, existing research has not come to a consensus on the efficacy of tracking across classes in elementary and secondary schools. Early research …" p.1 Dismissive Patterns, Determinants, and Consequences of Ability Tracking: Evidence from Texas Public Schools NBER Working Paper No. 30370, August 2022   https://www.nber.org/papers/w3037
3 Kate Antonovics, Sandra E. Black, Julie Berry Cullen, and Akiva Yonah Meiselman   "Even more basic, relatively little is known about the scope and nature of tracking in the US." p.1 Dismissive Patterns, Determinants, and Consequences of Ability Tracking: Evidence from Texas Public Schools NBER Working Paper No. 30370, August 2022   https://www.nber.org/papers/w3037
4 Kate Antonovics, Sandra E. Black, Julie Berry Cullen, and Akiva Yonah Meiselman   "Very little is known about the nature and scope of tracking in the US." p.26 Dismissive Patterns, Determinants, and Consequences of Ability Tracking: Evidence from Texas Public Schools NBER Working Paper No. 30370, August 2022   https://www.nber.org/papers/w3037
5 Mayowa Aina, National Public Radio (NPR) Constance Lindsey [interviewee] "This is the first study of its kind to show that there are long-run effects." 1stness To Get To College, It Helps Black Students To Have A Black Teacher Early On NPR.org, January 11, 2019 NPR, Urban Institute funders  
6 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Given the topic’s importance, it is surprising that trends in SES-achievement gaps are so poorly documented." p.1 Dismissive Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764
7 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "The empirical basis for these conclusions is limited." p.2 Dismissive Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764
8 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "We add to this sparse literature by providing the first comprehensive analysis of long-run trends in SES-achievement gaps from psychometrically linked data sets." p.2 1stness Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764
9 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "... both critics and proponents of international and national testing often fail to differentiate among alternative forms and uses of testing, leading to a confused debate."  Denigrating Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation &  NBER funders https://www.nber.org/papers/w24836
10 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "For example, in the United States consideration of testing is mostly restricted to such accountability systems as exemplified by No Child Left Behind (NCLB)." Dismissive Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation &  NBER funders https://www.nber.org/papers/w24836
11 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "While there have been previous evaluations of the impact of accountability systems, largely within the United States (Figlio and Loeb (2011)), it is unclear how to generalize from these." Dismissive Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation &  NBER funders https://www.nber.org/papers/w24836
12 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We provide the first evidence that cumulative heat exposure inhibits cognitive skill development and that school air conditioning can mitigate this effect." 1stness Heat and Learning, abstract National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
13 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "New data providing the first measures of school-level air conditioning penetration across the US suggest such infrastructure almost entirely offsets these effects." 1stness Heat and Learning, abstract National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
14 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "A fact less well-established is that hotter countries also tend to score lower on internationally comparable measures of academic achievement." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
15 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "To show this, we construct the first nationwide measures of school-level air conditioning penetration in the United States by surveying students and guidance counselors across the country about heat-related conditions in their schools." 1stness Heat and Learning, 3 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
16 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "These findings contribute to a growing literature on the impact of heat on individual outcomes and cognition more specifically …" Dismissive Heat and Learning, 3 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
17 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We believe our study is the first to precisely estimate the direct effect of cumulative heat exposure on learning … " 1stness Heat and Learning, 3 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
18 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "… we are the first to empirically assess the effect of school air conditioning on learning, and to document heterogeneity by socioeconomic status, …" 1stness Heat and Learning, 4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
19 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "The only other paper that precisely identifies the impact of cumulative heat exposure on human capital accumulation in a developed country context is Isen et al. (2017), which focuses on in utero exposure and thus identifies a very different channel from the learning channel we study here." Denigrating Heat and Learning, 4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
20 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Our analysis of the mitigating effects of air conditioning is also one of the first to provide evidence on the efficacy of specific investments in educational infrastructure." 1stness Heat and Learning, 4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
21 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Ours is the first study of which we are aware to study the effectiveness of adaptation in the context of human capital accumulation." 1stness Heat and Learning, 5 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
22 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "No comprehensive national data set of school calendars covering this time period exists, so we assign to each student a likely school start and end date based on the calendar of the largest school district in that student’s state, as seen in Figure A.1." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 8 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
23 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Previous research suggests that such pollutants can affect student absenteeism and performance, at least in the short run (Currie et al., 2009; Ebenstein et al., 2016), though there is relatively less evidence regarding the impact of longer-term exposures." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 10 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
24 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We provide the first evidence that cumulative heat exposure inhibits cognitive skill development and that school air conditioning can mitigate this effect." 1stness Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
25 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "These findings contribute to a growing literature on the impact of heat on individual outcomes by showing that cumulative heat exposure generates long-term reductions in human capital accumulation." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
26 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We are also the first to isolate the impact of one specific form of school infrastructure investment, namely school air conditioning." 1stness Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
27 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Ours is the first study of which we are aware to estimate the effectiveness of such adaptation in the context of human capital accumulation, …" 1stness Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
28 Daphna Bassok Thomas Dee, Scott Latham "However, we know little about whether these accountability reforms operate as theorized."  Dismissive The Effects of Accountability Incentives in Early Childhood Education, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 23859, Issued in September 2017  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w23859
29 Daphna Bassok Thomas Dee, Scott Latham "This study provides the first empirical evidence on this question using data from North Carolina, a state with a mature QRIS." 1stness The Effects of Accountability Incentives in Early Childhood Education, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 23859, Issued in September 2017  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w23859
30 Peter De Vlieger Brian A. Jacob, Kevin Stange "Instructors are a chief input into the higher education production process, yet we know very little about their role in promoting student success." Dismissive Measuring Instructor Effectiveness in Higher Education, abstract "This paper was prepared for the NBER Conference “Productivity in Higher Education” held on June 1, 2016." Published by NBER November 30,2016. NBER funders  
31 Peter De Vlieger Brian A. Jacob, Kevin Stange "Professors and instructors are a chief input into the higher education production process, yet we know very little about their role in promoting student success." Dismissive Measuring Instructor Effectiveness in Higher Education, p.1 "This paper was prepared for the NBER Conference “Productivity in Higher Education” held on June 1, 2016." Published by NBER November 30,2016. NBER funders  
32 Peter De Vlieger Brian A. Jacob, Kevin Stange "Yet relatively little is known about the importance of or correlates of instructor effectiveness in postsecondary education." Dismissive Measuring Instructor Effectiveness in Higher Education, p.4 "This paper was prepared for the NBER Conference “Productivity in Higher Education” held on June 1, 2016." Published by NBER November 30,2016. NBER funders  
33 Peter De Vlieger Brian A. Jacob, Kevin Stange "Yet little is known about instructor effectiveness in postsecondary education, in part due to difficulties with outcome measurement and self-selection." Dismissive Measuring Instructor Effectiveness in Higher Education, p.4 "This paper was prepared for the NBER Conference “Productivity in Higher Education” held on June 1, 2016." Published by NBER November 30,2016. NBER funders  
34 Brian A. Jacob Thomas S. Dee, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "…despite widespread concerns over test validity and the manipulation of scores, we know little about the factors that lead educators to manipulate student scores (e.g., accountability policies versus individual students traits). Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
35 Brian A. Jacob Thomas S. Dee, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "…there is little empirical evidence on whether test score manipulation has any long-run consequences for students' educational outcomes and performance gaps by race, ethnicity, and gender." Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
36 Brian A. Jacob Thomas S. Dee, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "Our results contribute to an emerging literature that documents both the moral hazard that can be created by test-scoring procedures…. In early work, Jacob and Levitt (2003) find... Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.3 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
37 Brian A. Jacob Thomas S. Dee, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "Our results contribute to an emerging literature that documents both the moral hazard that can be created by test-scoring procedures…. In early work, Jacob and Levitt (2003) find... Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.3 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
38 Scott E. Carrell,  Mark Hoekstra,  Elira Kuka   "However, there is relatively little evidence on the long-run educational and labor market consequences of childhood peers." Abstract Dismissive The Long-Run Efects of Disruptive Peers  February 17, 2016  We acknowledge financial support from the UC Davis Center for Poverty Research.  
39 Scott E. Carrell,  Mark Hoekstra,  Elira Kuka   "In contrast, relatively little is known about the long-run impact of childhood peers, particularly with respect to labor market outcomes in adulthood. This lack of evidence has important implications for the evaluation of education policies that affect peer composition." p.2 Dismissive The Long-Run Efects of Disruptive Peers  February 17, 2016  We acknowledge financial support from the UC Davis Center for Poverty Research.  
40 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "Policymakers and researchers … have sought policies to provide all children with effective teachers. The selective retention of effectice teachers has been one of the most-discussed  strategies that may contribute to this goal. … However, we know relatively little about how such policies would work in practice. In particular, the capacity of districts to identify effective teachers at the hiring stage is limited (Boyd, et al., 2008, Rockoff & Speroni, 2010, Rockoff, et al., 2011)."  Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
41 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "Futhermore, research and practice have only recently begun making progress on accurately and reliably assessing teacher effectiveness." Denigrating Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
42 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "However, we are unaware of any research that documents how the patterns of teacher turnover created by such policies (i.e., the attrition of teachers sanctioned for low performance, other teachers choosing to leave, and the hiring of new teachers) influence student achievement. In this study, we provide such evidence...'" 1stness Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
43 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "There is only limited evidence that financial incentives make a difference in retaining teachers generally (Clotfelter, Glennie, Ladd, & Vigdor, 2008; Glazerman & Seifullah, 2012) and high-performing teachers specifically (Dee & Wyckoff, 2015).  Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
44 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "In the absence of real-world evidence on the effects of policies that improve teacher composition, researchers hace simulated the effects of such policies." Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
45 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "In sum, there is at best limited empirical evidence of the effects of differential retention policies on teacher quality and student achievement. What evidence does directly bear on the issue are simulations dependent on a series of simplifying assumptions." Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
46 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "An extensive theoretical and qualitative literature stresses the promise of instructional practices and content aligned with the cultural experiences of minority students. ... However, the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of these courses is limited." Dismissive The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
47 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "... the available quantitative evidence on the causal effects of ES courses (and, culturally relevant pedagogy, in general) on student outcomes is limited, ... This study provides such evidence …" Denigrating The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
48 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "While the expansion of ES courses illustrates both their appeal and concerns, the quantitative evidence on their effects is relatively limited. Furthermore, the evidence that is available relies on research designs that cannot necessarily support credible causal inference." Dismissive, Denigrating The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
49 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of any type of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) in a quantitative study that supports credible causal inferences." 1stness The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
50 Brian Jacob Susan Dynarski,  Kenneth Frank, Barbara Schneider "A large body of research has found that increasing high school graduation requirements (whether in the form of additional courses or exit exams) results in lower graduation rates among the most disadvantaged students. There is less evidence on how such policies affect student achievement, but the existing research generally does not find large gains in student performance." p.2 Dismissive Are Expectations Alone Enough? Estimating the Effect of a Mandatory College-Prep Curriculum in Michigan EPI Working Paper 01-2016,  January, 2016 & NBER Working Paper No. 22013 "The U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences provided generous support through Grant R305E100008." & NBER funders http://edpolicy.umich.edu/files/01-2016_are-expectations-alone-enough.pdf See, for example,   https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920  https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies: "The many studies of district and state minimum competency or diploma testing programs popular from the 1960s through the 1980s found positive effects for students just below the cut score and mixed effects for students far below and anywhere above.  Researchers have included Fincher, Jackson, Battiste, Corcoran, Jacobsen, Tanner, Boylan, Saxon, Anderson, Muir, Bateson, Blackmore, Rogers, Zigarelli, Schafer, Hultgren, Hawley, Abrams, Seubert, Mazzoni, Brookhart, Mendro, Herrick, Webster, Orsak, Weeasinghe, and Bembry" For example, from Table 3, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies: "Relevant pre-2000 studies of the effects of minimum-competency testing and the problems with a single passing score include those of Frederiksen (1994); Winfield (1990); Ligon, Johnstone, Brightman, Davis, et al. (1990); Losack (1987); Mangino & Babcock (1986); Serow (1982); Brunton (1982); Paramore, et al. (1980); Ogden (1979); and Findley (1978)."
51 Brian Jacob Susan Dynarski,  Kenneth Frank, Barbara Schneider "In addition, a small but growing body of research shows that taking certain core courses, especially those in math and science, can have significant, positive effects on long-term labor-market outcomes (Betts & Rose, 2004; Cortes, Goodman, & Nomi, 2015; Goodman, 2012; Levine & Zimmerman, 1995)." p.3 Dismissive Are Expectations Alone Enough? Estimating the Effect of a Mandatory College-Prep Curriculum in Michigan EPI Working Paper 01-2016,  January, 2016 & NBER Working Paper No. 22013 "The U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences provided generous support through Grant R305E100008." & NBER funders http://edpolicy.umich.edu/files/01-2016_are-expectations-alone-enough.pdf See, for example,   https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920  https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies: "The many studies of district and state minimum competency or diploma testing programs popular from the 1960s through the 1980s found positive effects for students just below the cut score and mixed effects for students far below and anywhere above.  Researchers have included Fincher, Jackson, Battiste, Corcoran, Jacobsen, Tanner, Boylan, Saxon, Anderson, Muir, Bateson, Blackmore, Rogers, Zigarelli, Schafer, Hultgren, Hawley, Abrams, Seubert, Mazzoni, Brookhart, Mendro, Herrick, Webster, Orsak, Weeasinghe, and Bembry" For example, from Table 3, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies: "Relevant pre-2000 studies of the effects of minimum-competency testing and the problems with a single passing score include those of Frederiksen (1994); Winfield (1990); Ligon, Johnstone, Brightman, Davis, et al. (1990); Losack (1987); Mangino & Babcock (1986); Serow (1982); Brunton (1982); Paramore, et al. (1980); Ogden (1979); and Findley (1978)."
52 Brian Jacob Susan Dynarski,  Kenneth Frank, Barbara Schneider "Moreover, there is substantial evidence that high school exit exams, a closely related policy, increase drop-out rates, particularly among low-income students (Dee & Jacob, 2007; Jacob, 2001; Jenkins, Kulick, & Warren, 2006; Papay, Murnane, & Willett, 2010), and little evidence that they improve student achievement (Dee & Jacob, 2007; Grodsky, Kalogrides, & Warren, 2009)." p.4 Dismissive Are Expectations Alone Enough? Estimating the Effect of a Mandatory College-Prep Curriculum in Michigan EPI Working Paper 01-2016,  January, 2016 & NBER Working Paper No. 22013 "The U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences provided generous support through Grant R305E100008." & NBER funders http://edpolicy.umich.edu/files/01-2016_are-expectations-alone-enough.pdf See, for example,   https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920  https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies: "The many studies of district and state minimum competency or diploma testing programs popular from the 1960s through the 1980s found positive effects for students just below the cut score and mixed effects for students far below and anywhere above.  Researchers have included Fincher, Jackson, Battiste, Corcoran, Jacobsen, Tanner, Boylan, Saxon, Anderson, Muir, Bateson, Blackmore, Rogers, Zigarelli, Schafer, Hultgren, Hawley, Abrams, Seubert, Mazzoni, Brookhart, Mendro, Herrick, Webster, Orsak, Weeasinghe, and Bembry" For example, from Table 3, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies: "Relevant pre-2000 studies of the effects of minimum-competency testing and the problems with a single passing score include those of Frederiksen (1994); Winfield (1990); Ligon, Johnstone, Brightman, Davis, et al. (1990); Losack (1987); Mangino & Babcock (1986); Serow (1982); Brunton (1982); Paramore, et al. (1980); Ogden (1979); and Findley (1978)."
53 Brian Jacob Susan Dynarski,  Kenneth Frank, Barbara Schneider "… with the exception of the working paper by Buddin and Croft (2014), this article is (to the best of our knowledge) the first analysis of a state attempt to require college-preparatory courses for all students." p.5 1stness Are Expectations Alone Enough? Estimating the Effect of a Mandatory College-Prep Curriculum in Michigan EPI Working Paper 01-2016,  January, 2016 & NBER Working Paper No. 22013 "The U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences provided generous support through Grant R305E100008." & NBER funders http://edpolicy.umich.edu/files/01-2016_are-expectations-alone-enough.pdf See, for example,   https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920  https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies: "The many studies of district and state minimum competency or diploma testing programs popular from the 1960s through the 1980s found positive effects for students just below the cut score and mixed effects for students far below and anywhere above.  Researchers have included Fincher, Jackson, Battiste, Corcoran, Jacobsen, Tanner, Boylan, Saxon, Anderson, Muir, Bateson, Blackmore, Rogers, Zigarelli, Schafer, Hultgren, Hawley, Abrams, Seubert, Mazzoni, Brookhart, Mendro, Herrick, Webster, Orsak, Weeasinghe, and Bembry" For example, from Table 3, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies: "Relevant pre-2000 studies of the effects of minimum-competency testing and the problems with a single passing score include those of Frederiksen (1994); Winfield (1990); Ligon, Johnstone, Brightman, Davis, et al. (1990); Losack (1987); Mangino & Babcock (1986); Serow (1982); Brunton (1982); Paramore, et al. (1980); Ogden (1979); and Findley (1978)."
54 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "…more than a decade after NCLB, we know very little about the impact of test-based accountability on students' long-run life chances.", p.2 Dismissive School accountabiity, postsecondary attainment, and earnings Harvard Graduate School of Education and the National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2015   NBER funders  
55 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "The literature on school accountability has focused on low-stakes tests…", p.7 Dismissive School accountabiity, postsecondary attainment, and earnings Harvard Graduate School of Education and the National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2015   NBER funders  
56 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "To our knowledge, only two studies look at the long-term impact of school accountability on postsecondary outcomes.", p.8 Dismissive School accountabiity, postsecondary attainment, and earnings Harvard Graduate School of Education and the National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2015   NBER funders  
57 Ann Huff Stevens Michal Kurlaender, Michel Grosz "While career technical education (CTE) programs have often been mentioned as an attractive alternative to four-year colleges for some students, very little systematic evidence exists on the returns to specific vocational certiticates and degrees." Dismissive Career technical education and labor market outcomes: Evidence from California Community Colleges National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21137, Issued in April 2015   NBER funders  
58 Thomas Dee James Wycoff "Furthermore, decades of empirical research have provided relatively little evidence on observed teacher traits that can consistently predict teacher quality." p.1 Dismissive, Denigrating Incentives, Selection, and Teacher Performance: Evidence from IMPACT National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #19529, Issued in October 2013 "We received financial support for this research from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the National Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER). CALDER is supported by IES Grant R305A060018." https://www.nber.org/papers/w19529
59 Thomas Dee James Wycoff "Despite the prevalence of teacher-compensation reforms, the available empirical evidence on the effects of teacher incentives has, until quite recently, been thin and methodologically weak" p.6 Dismissive, Denigrating Incentives, Selection, and Teacher Performance: Evidence from IMPACT National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #19529, Issued in October 2013 "We received financial support for this research from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the National Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER). CALDER is supported by IES Grant R305A060018." https://www.nber.org/papers/w19529
60 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "However, more than a decade after the passage of NCLB, we know very little about the impact of test-based accountability on students’ long-run life chances. Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.2 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444
61 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "Previous work has found large gains on high-stakes tests, with some evidence of smaller gains on low-stakes exams that is inconsistent across grades and subjects (e.g. Koretz and Barron 1998, Linn 2000, Klein et al. 2000, Carnoy and Loeb 2002, Hanushek and Raymond 2005, Jacob 2005, Wong, Cook and Steiner 2009, Dee and Jacob 2010, Reback, Rockoff and Schwartz 2011). Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.2 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444
62 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "...Previous research has focused on measuring performance on low-stakes exams." Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.4 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444
63 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "The literature on school accountability has focused on low-stakes tests, in an attempt to measure whether gains on high-stakes exams represent generalizable gains in student learning. Recent studies of accountability in multiple states have found achievement gains across subjects and grades on low-stakes exams (Ladd 1999, Carnoy and Loeb 2002, Greene and Winters 2003, Hanushek and Raymond 2005, Figlio and Rouse 2006, Chiang 2009, Dee and Jacob 2010, Wong, Cook and Steiner 2011, Allen and Burgess 2012)." Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.6 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444
64 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "To our knowledge, only two studies look at the long-term impact of school accountability on postsecondary outcomes. Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.7 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444
65 C. Kirabo Jackson   "This paper provides the first estimates of worker-firm match quality using output data as opposed to inferring productivity from wages or employment durations." 1stness Match Quality, Worker Productivity, and Worker Mobility: Direct Evidence From Teachers NBER Working Paper No. 15990 & The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(4), pages 1096-1116, October. NBER funders https://www.nber.org/papers/w15990
66 Eric Bettinger   "Coshocton is the first study in economics to focus on financial incentives for student achievement in primary schools." 1stness PAYING TO LEARN: THE EFFECT OF FINANCIAL INCENTIVES ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEST SCORES NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 16333 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w16333
67 Brian A. Jacob   “And, yet, there is little empirical evidence on whether such incentives will change teacher behavior or improve student achievement.” p. 2 Dismissive The Effect of Employment Protection on Teacher Effort University of Michigan & NBER, March 2012 NBER funders http://cep.lse.ac.uk/seminarpapers/07-05-13-BJ.pdf
68 Brian A. Jacob   “In addition, this analysis contributes to the economic literature on employment protection more generally. To the best of my knowledge, it is one of the few empirical studies of the impact of employment protection on worker effort...” p. 4 1stness The Effect of Employment Protection on Teacher Effort University of Michigan & NBER, March 2012 NBER funders http://cep.lse.ac.uk/seminarpapers/07-05-13-BJ.pdf
69 Brian A. Jacob   “ . . . the only study to directly examine this issue in the public sector.” p. 4 1stness The Effect of Employment Protection on Teacher Effort University of Michigan & NBER, March 2012 NBER funders http://cep.lse.ac.uk/seminarpapers/07-05-13-BJ.pdf
70 Brian A. Jacob   “Surprisingly few studies have examined the impact of employment protection on worker behavior.” p. 5 Dismissive The Effect of Employment Protection on Teacher Effort University of Michigan & NBER, March 2012 NBER funders http://cep.lse.ac.uk/seminarpapers/07-05-13-BJ.pdf
71 Brian A. Jacob   “Two recent reviews of pay-for-performance in education conclude that the existing evidence on merit pay is limited and shows mixed results (Springer and Podgursky 2008, Lavy 2008).” p. 6 Dismissive The Effect of Employment Protection on Teacher Effort University of Michigan & NBER, March 2012 NBER funders http://cep.lse.ac.uk/seminarpapers/07-05-13-BJ.pdf
72 Hoxby, Caroline M.  Christopher Avery “The sheer comprehensiveness and accuracy of our data is [sic] what allow us to form strong hypotheses about why some high-achieving, low-income students are income-typical and others are achievement-typical.” p. 3 1stness The Missing "One-Offs": The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving, Low Income Students  NBER Working Paper 18586, 2012 NBER funders http://health-equity.pitt.edu/4124/1/THE_MISSING.pdf
73 Hoxby, Caroline M.  Christopher Avery Relative to those studies, our study's strengths are its comprehensiveness; . . .  complete characterization of each U.S. high school; . . . ability to map students; and . . . .use of accurate administrative data. . . .” Denigrating The Missing "One-Offs": The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving, Low Income Students  NBER Working Paper 18586, 2012 NBER funders http://health-equity.pitt.edu/4124/1/THE_MISSING.pdf
74 Matthew Ronfeldt Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb, James Wyckoff "Yet, there exists little empirical evidence for a direct effect of teacher turnover on student achievement (Guin, 2004)." p.1 Dismissive How teacher turnover harms student achievement NBER Working Paper 17176 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w17176
75 Matthew Ronfeldt Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb, James Wyckoff "A growing body of evidence indicates that teachers who produce higher student achievement gains are at least as likely, and sometimes more likely, to stay in schools than their less effective peers (Boyd et al, 2010; Goldhaber, D., Gross, B., and Player, D., 2007; Hanushek & Rivkin, 2010)." p.1 Dismissive How teacher turnover harms student achievement NBER Working Paper 17176 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w17176
76 Matthew Ronfeldt Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb, James Wyckoff " ...we still know very little about the overall effect of attrition on students." p.3 Dismissive How teacher turnover harms student achievement NBER Working Paper 17176 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w17176
77 Matthew Ronfeldt Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb, James Wyckoff "This study finds some of the first empirical evidence for a direct effect of teacher turnover on student achievement." p.17 1stness How teacher turnover harms student achievement NBER Working Paper 17176 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w17176
78 John P. Papay
John B. Willett, Richard J. Murnane "In this paper, we ask whether failing one or more of the state-mandated high-school exit examinations reduces the probability that students graduate from high school. Importantly, we go beyond prior research on this topic by using a multi-dimensional regression-discontinuity approach." p.2 1stness High-School Exit Examinations and the Schooling Decisions of Teenagers: a Multi-Dimensional Regression-Discontinuity Analysis NBER Working Paper 17112, June 2011 "The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R305E100013 to Harvard University."    
79 John P. Papay
John B. Willett, Richard J. Murnane "This paper represents the first application of this generalized strategy for addressing situations in which multiple variables assign individuals to a range of different treatments." p.2 1stness High-School Exit Examinations and the Schooling Decisions of Teenagers: a Multi-Dimensional Regression-Discontinuity Analysis NBER Working Paper 17112, June 2011 "The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R305E100013 to Harvard University."    
80 John P. Papay
John B. Willett, Richard J. Murnane "Over the past decade, researchers have begun to examine the consequences of failing high-school exit examinations." p.3 Dismissive High-School Exit Examinations and the Schooling Decisions of Teenagers: a Multi-Dimensional Regression-Discontinuity Analysis NBER Working Paper 17112, June 2011 "The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R305E100013 to Harvard University."    
81 Eric P. Bettinger "Coshocton is the first study in economics to focus on financial incentives for student achievement in primary schools." p.1 1stness PAYING TO LEARN: THE EFFECT OF FINANCIAL INCENTIVES ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEST SCORES NBER Working Paper 16333, September 2010 (1) NBER funders https://www.nber.org/papers/w16333
82 Li Feng David N. Figlio, Tim Sass "This paper presents the first causal evidence on the effects of school accountability systems on teacher labor markets." 1stness School accountability and teacher mobility, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 16070, Issued in June 2010 (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w16070
83 Li Feng David N. Figlio, Tim Sass "Early evidence concerning the effects of these accountability systems on student performance indicates they tend to improve the outcomes of low-performing students."  Dismissive, Denigrating School accountability and teacher mobility, p.2 NBER Working Paper No. 16070, Issued in June 2010 (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w16070
84 Li Feng David N. Figlio, Tim Sass "Early evidence concerning the effects of these accountability systems on student performance indicates they tend to improve the outcomes of low-performing students."  Dismissive, Denigrating School accountability and teacher mobility, p.2 NBER Working Paper No. 16070, Issued in June 2010 (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w16070
85 Li Feng David N. Figlio, Tim Sass "However, the literature relating accountability pressures to teachers’ labor market decisions has been much spottier." Dismissive, Denigrating School accountability and teacher mobility, p.5 NBER Working Paper No. 16070, Issued in June 2010 (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w16070
86 Brian A. Jacob   “In contrast, there has been remarkably little research on the demand side of the teacher labor market. For example, few studies have examined how principals hire or fire teachers, or how changes in personnel policies might influence teacher quality.” p. 2 Dismissive Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers? NBER Working Paper No. 15715, February 2010  NBER funders http://www-personal.umich.edu/~baBrian A. Jacob/w15715_teacher_firing.pdf
87 Brian A. Jacob   This void is not unique to education research. There is a vast economics literature on employee compensation, for example, but relatively few empirical studies that examine the factors that employers consider when hiring or dismissing workers.” p. 3 Dismissive Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers? NBER Working Paper No. 15715, February 2010  NBER funders http://www-personal.umich.edu/~baBrian A. Jacob/w15715_teacher_firing.pdf
88 Brian A. Jacob   “While many studies mention the determinants of job displacement, few studies attempt to carefully explore employer preferences for worker characteristics. One important exception is the literature on employer discrimination.” p. 6 Dismissive Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers? NBER Working Paper No. 15715, February 2010  NBER funders http://www-personal.umich.edu/~baBrian A. Jacob/w15715_teacher_firing.pdf
89 Li Feng David N. Figlio, Tim Sass "This paper presents the first causal evidence on the effects of school accountability systems on teacher labor markets." 1stness School accountability and teacher mobility, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 16070, Issued in June 2010  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w16070
90 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes. This project addresses this critical issue..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute   For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
91 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...approximately one-third of entering postsecondary students require remedial or developmental work before entering college-level courses. However, little is known about the causal impact of remediation on student outcomes. ...This project..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute   For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
92 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes. This project addresses this critical issue..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009   NBER funders   For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
93 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...approximately one-third of entering postsecondary students require remedial or developmental work before entering college-level courses. However, little is known about the causal impact of remediation on student outcomes. ...This project..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009   NBER funders   For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
94 Thomas J. Kane Douglas O. Staiger “Although many analysts have used non-experimental data to estimate teacher effects  …, we were able to identify only one previous study using random assignment to estimate the variation in teacher effects.” p. 4 Dismissive Estimating Teacher Impacts on Student Achievement: An Experimental Evaluation NBER Working Paper 14607, December 2008 This analysis was supported by the Spencer Foundation.  Initial data collection was supported by a grant from the National Board on Professional Teaching Standards to the Urban Education Partnership in Los Angeles. &   NBER funders www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14607.pdf
95 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “Research on the relationship between teachers' characteristics and teacher effectiveness has been underway for over a century, yet little progress has been made in linking teacher quality with factors observable at the time of hire.” p. 1 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support. &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
96 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “However, most research on teacher effectiveness has examined a relatively small set of teacher characteristics, such as graduate education and certification . . . researchers’ lack of success in predicting new teacher performance may be driven by a narrow focus on commonly available data.” p. 1 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
97 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “While many studies have been conducted, few definitive conclusions have been made. One reason has been the widespread but controversial use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. …” p. 8 Denigrating Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
98 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “However, there is little work examining the relationship between self-efficacy and student learning.” p. 9 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
99 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “In addition to being one of the first studies of teacher value-added and its correlation with principal evaluations, this paper also finds a significant positive relationship between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and student achievement growth.” p. 10 1stness Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
100 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “While use of commercial selection instruments has grown considerably, there is little systematic evidence on the power of these instruments for predicting teacher effectiveness.” p. 11 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
101 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “Research on the relationship between teachers' characteristics and teacher effectiveness has been underway for over a century, yet little progress has been made in linking teacher quality with factors observable at the time of hire.” p. 1 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
102 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “However, most research on teacher effectiveness has examined a relatively small set of teacher characteristics, such as graduate education and certification . . . researchers’ lack of success in predicting new teacher performance may be driven by a narrow focus on commonly available data.” p. 1 Denigrating Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
103 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “While many studies have been conducted, few definitive conclusions have been made. One reason has been the widespread but controversial use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. …” p. 8 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
104 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “However, there is little work examining the relationship between self-efficacy and student learning.” p. 9 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
105 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “In addition to being one of the first studies of teacher value-added and its correlation with principal evaluations, this paper also finds a significant positive relationship between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and student achievement growth.” p. 10 1stness Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
106 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “While use of commercial selection instruments has grown considerably, there is little systematic evidence on the power of these instruments for predicting teacher effectiveness.” p. 11 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
107 Thomas Dee Martin R. West "Although recent evidence suggests that non-cognitive skills such as engagement matter for academic and economic success, there is little evidence on how key educational inputs affect the development of these skills." Dismissive The Non-Cognitive Returns to Class Size, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 13994, Issued in May 2008 (5) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w13994  
108 Thomas Dee Martin R. West "Yet while numerous researchers have hypothesized that smaller classes could improve non cognitive skills, there exists little reliable evidence on their effects on these types of outcomes." p.2 Dismissive, Denigrating The Non-Cognitive Returns to Class Size, p.2 NBER Working Paper No. 13994, Issued in May 2008 (5) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w13994  
109 T.R. Stinebrickner R. Stinebrickner "Despite the large amount of attention that has been paid recently to understanding the determinants of educational outcomes, knowledge of the causal effect of the most fundamental input in the education production function - student study time and effort - has remained virtually non-existent. In this paper..." Dismissive The causal effect of studying on academic performance. NBER Working Paper No. 13341, 2007  NBER supporters  
110 Julian Betts Jeff George "Despite recent theoretical work and proposals from educational reformers, there is little empirical work on the effects of higher grading standards. In this paper…" Dismissive The impact of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings, abstract National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 7875 This research was supported by a grant from the American Educational Research Association which receives funds for its "AERA Grants Program" from the National Science Foundation and the National Center for Education Sttistics under NSF Grant #RED-9452861. http://www.nber.org/papers/w7875 See a review of hundreds of studies:  Brookhart et al. (2016) A Century of Grading Research: A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., Bowers, A. J., McMillan, J. H., Smith, J. K., Smith, L. F., Stevens, M.T., Welsh, M. E. (2016). A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.
doi: 10.3102/0034654316672069   http://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316672069
111 Julian Betts Jeff George "...it is surprising how little empirical work has been devoted to understanding how other aspects of the educational environment affect student behavior. In particular, given economists’ general interests in incentive schemes, it is surprising how little empirical work has focused on educational incentives." Dismissive The impact of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 7875 This research was supported by a grant from the American Educational Research Association which receives funds for its "AERA Grants Program" from the National Science Foundation and the National Center for Education Sttistics under NSF Grant #RED-9452861. http://www.nber.org/papers/w7875 See a review of hundreds of studies:  Brookhart et al. (2016) A Century of Grading Research: A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., Bowers, A. J., McMillan, J. H., Smith, J. K., Smith, L. F., Stevens, M.T., Welsh, M. E. (2016). A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.
doi: 10.3102/0034654316672069   http://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316672069
112 Julian Betts Jeff George "The only other empirical study that we know of that addresses similar questions is Lillard and DeCicca (forthcoming)." Dismissive The impact of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 7875 This research was supported by a grant from the American Educational Research Association which receives funds for its "AERA Grants Program" from the National Science Foundation and the National Center for Education Sttistics under NSF Grant #RED-9452861. http://www.nber.org/papers/w7875 See a review of hundreds of studies:  Brookhart et al. (2016) A Century of Grading Research: A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., Bowers, A. J., McMillan, J. H., Smith, J. K., Smith, L. F., Stevens, M.T., Welsh, M. E. (2016). A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.
doi: 10.3102/0034654316672069   http://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316672069
113 Brian A. Jacob   "While such divergence has been documented in several studies, there has been no systematic analysis of this issue nationwide." Dismissive TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: AN INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCE ON NAEP AND STATE ASSESSMENTS, p.2 NBER Working Paper 12817, January 2007 Funding for this project was generously provided by the U.S. Department of Education NAEP Secondary Analysis Grant . http://www.nber.org/papers/w12817
114 Brian A. Jacob   "To fill this gap in the research literature, over a period of several years I collected…" Dismissive TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: AN INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCE ON NAEP AND STATE ASSESSMENTS, p.3 NBER Working Paper 12817, January 2007 Funding for this project was generously provided by the U.S. Department of Education NAEP Secondary Analysis Grant . http://www.nber.org/papers/w12817
115 Brian A. Jacob   "More importantly, there has been little research on the reasons why student performance differs between NAEP and local assessments." Dismissive TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: AN INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCE ON NAEP AND STATE ASSESSMENTS, p.11 NBER Working Paper 12817, January 2007 Funding for this project was generously provided by the U.S. Department of Education NAEP Secondary Analysis Grant . http://www.nber.org/papers/w12817
116 Brian A. Jacob   "Jacob (2005) makes an effort to fill this gap. He found…" Dismissive TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: AN INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCE ON NAEP AND STATE ASSESSMENTS, p.12 NBER Working Paper 12817, January 2007 Funding for this project was generously provided by the U.S. Department of Education NAEP Secondary Analysis Grant . http://www.nber.org/papers/w12817
117 Julie Berry Cullen Randall Reback "Although the potential for this dysfunctional response is well recognized, there has been relatively limited systematic analysis of the link or its practical relevance." p.2 Dismissive TINKERING TOWARD ACCOLADES: SCHOOL GAMING UNDER A PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM NBER Working Paper 12286, June 2006 The authors would like to thank the Office of Tax Policy Research and the Department of Economics at the University of Michigan for providing funding for data acquisition http://www.nber.org/papers/w12286
118 Julie Berry Cullen Randall Reback "There is mixed evidence whether improvements on the test instruments used for accountability are matched by parallel gains on other exams (e.g., Hanushek and Raymond, 2005; Jacob, 2005; Klein et al., 2000)." footnote 2 Dismissive TINKERING TOWARD ACCOLADES: SCHOOL GAMING UNDER A PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM NBER Working Paper 12286, June 2006 The authors would like to thank the Office of Tax Policy Research and the Department of Economics at the University of Michigan for providing funding for data acquisition http://www.nber.org/papers/w12286
119 Julie Berry Cullen Randall Reback "Our paper differs from prior studies in that it exploits the specific structure and evolution of the performance targets of the Texas system to formulate more precise school-level incentives." p.3 Denigrating TINKERING TOWARD ACCOLADES: SCHOOL GAMING UNDER A PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM NBER Working Paper 12286, June 2006 The authors would like to thank the Office of Tax Policy Research and the Department of Economics at the University of Michigan for providing funding for data acquisition http://www.nber.org/papers/w12286
120 Julie Berry Cullen Randall Reback "In addition to students enrolled in tested grades being exempted, low-achieving students can be excluded by being retained in untested grades or encouraged to drop out. Jacob (2005) reports higher retention rates in untested grades following the implementation of the accountability system in Chicago. Haney (2000) reports a similar finding for minorities in Texas, although Carnoy et al. (2001) show that this trend was pre-existing. The literature linking testing standards to dropout rates has focused on the negative impact of grade retention and failure on completion (e.g., Reardon, 1996; Kreitzer et al., 1989), rather than on the interaction with school incentives." footnote 8 Dismissive TINKERING TOWARD ACCOLADES: SCHOOL GAMING UNDER A PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM NBER Working Paper 12286, June 2006 The authors would like to thank the Office of Tax Policy Research and the Department of Economics at the University of Michigan for providing funding for data acquisition http://www.nber.org/papers/w12286
121 Thomas J. Kane Jonah E. Rockoff, Douglas O. Staiger "Despite the ubiquity of alternative teacher certification (AC) programs across the country, there is little research on the relative quality of certified, uncertified, and AC teachers." p.1 Dismissive What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effective ess? Evidence from New York City   NBER Working Paper 12155, April 2006   http://www.nber.org/papers/w12155
122 Thomas J. Kane Jonah E. Rockoff, Douglas O. Staiger "In this paper, we aim to fill this gap in the literature by providing new evidence on how the certification of teachers in a large, urban school district relates to teachers’ impacts on student achievement." p.1 Dismissive What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effective ess? Evidence from New York City   NBER Working Paper 12155, April 2006   http://www.nber.org/papers/w12155
123 Thomas J. Kane Jonah E. Rockoff, Douglas O. Staiger "There exist only a few high-quality studies of AC teachers, most notably Decker et al. (2004)," p.1 Denigrating What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effective ess? Evidence from New York City   NBER Working Paper 12155, April 2006   http://www.nber.org/papers/w12155
124 Thomas J. Kane Jonah E. Rockoff, Douglas O. Staiger "In addition, existing studies of TFA focus on a very small number of schools and teachers…" p.2 Denigrating What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effective ess? Evidence from New York City   NBER Working Paper 12155, April 2006   http://www.nber.org/papers/w12155
125 Thomas J. Kane Jonah E. Rockoff, Douglas O. Staiger "Though generalizations are limited in all studies—ours included—we use a much larger sample of schools and teachers in a district that employs teachers with many different types of certification, including TFA corps members." p.2 1stness What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effective ess? Evidence from New York City   NBER Working Paper 12155, April 2006   http://www.nber.org/papers/w12155
126 Victor Lavy   "However, there is little evidence of the effect of teachers’ incentives in schools." Dismissive PERFORMANCE PAY AND TEACHERS’ EFFORT, PRODUCTIVITY AND GRADING ETHICS NBER Working Paper 10622, June 2004   http://www.nber.org/papers/w10622
127 Eric Hanushek Margaret Raymond "The final strand of relevant literature pertains to accountability itself. Although a recent policy effort, policies related to accountability have already become quite controversial – rising to the level of front page stories in the New York Times (Winter (2002)), Much of the work is very new and has not appeared journals yet." p.5 Dismissive DOES SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY LEAD TO IMPROVED STUDENT PERFORMANCE? NBER Working Paper 10591, June 2004 This work was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute. http://www.nber.org/papers/w10591
128 Eric Hanushek Margaret Raymond "The available studies generally support the view that accountability has had a positive effect on student outcomes, although the limited observations introduce some uncertainty (Carnoy and Loeb (2002); Hanushek and Raymond (2003b); Jacob (2003); Peterson and West (2003))." Dismissive DOES SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY LEAD TO IMPROVED STUDENT PERFORMANCE? NBER Working Paper 10591, June 2004 This work was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute. http://www.nber.org/papers/w10591
129 Eric Hanushek Margaret Raymond "Nonetheless, as we return to below, little analysis provides information on the longer run outcomes of this nature [on gaming accountability programs]" Dismissive DOES SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY LEAD TO IMPROVED STUDENT PERFORMANCE? NBER Working Paper 10591, June 2004 This work was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute. http://www.nber.org/papers/w10591
130 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, abstract Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
131 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "However, despite the proliferation of remediation, little is known about its effects on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.1 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
132 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate on remediation and the thousands of underprepared students who enter the nation’s higher education institutions each year, little is known about the effects of remediation on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.2 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
133 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "After assessing the literature on remediation, the Ohio Board of Regents (2001) concluded that there were no benchmarks by which to judge the success of higher education's remediation efforts. Likewise, two reviews of the literature on remedial and developmental education found the bulk of studies to be seriously flawed methodologically (O’Hear and MacDonald, 1995; Boylan and Saxon, 1999). ... As noted by Phipps (1998), “conjecture and criticism have filled the void created by the lack of basic information.” Denigrating SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, pp.2-3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
134 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "The lack of analysis on the effects of remediation is partly due to a lack of data." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, pp.2-3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
135 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...this paper addresses a hole in the literature and discusses how higher education attempts to assimilate under prepared students and train them for future college-level work and labor market success. " Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
136 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Additionally, given the system-wide nature of the data, we are able to distinguish between students who withdraw from school altogether and those who transfer to any other Ohio public colleges, an improvement over the information available in most studies." Denigrating SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.4 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
137 Eric Bettinger   "The Pell Grant program is the largest means-tested financial assistance available to postsecondary students across the United States, yet researchers have only limited evidence on the causal effects of these grants." Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, abstract NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
138 Eric Bettinger   "Yet despite this continued expansion of Pell, researchers have only limited evidence on the causal effects of these grants." Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, p.1 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
139 Eric Bettinger   "However, there is surprisingly little research measuring the causal effect of Pell grants on student outcomes in college (e.g. persistence, graduation)." p.1 Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, p.1 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
140 Eric Bettinger   "There are a number of reasons why more research has not investigated the effects of Pell grants on student collegiate outcomes. One reason is that researchers have
difficulty distinguishing between the effects of family characteristics and the effects of Pell grants." p.2
Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, p.2 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
141 Eric Bettinger   "A final reason that researchers have been unable to identify the effects of Pell grants on outcomes is the absence of accurate data, in particular, the absence of accurate persistence and detailed financial data." p.3 Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, p.3 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
142 Eric Bettinger   "To examine the effects of Pell, this paper presents evidence from data gathered by the Ohio Board of Regents (OBR). These data do not have the shortcomings of other datasets and offer a level of detail on both persistence and financial variables that is not available in other data." p.4 Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, p.4 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
143 Brian A. Jacob Lars Lefgren "As standards and accountability have become an increasingly prominent feature of the educational landscape, educators have relied more on remedial programs such as summer school and grade retention to help low-achieving students meet minimum academic standards. Yet the evidence on the effectiveness of such programs is mixed, and prior research suffers from selection bias." Denigrating REMEDIAL EDUCATION AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: A REGRESSION-DISCONTINUITY ANALYSIS, abstract NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 8918  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w8918 For example, from Table 3, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies: "Relevant pre-2000 studies of the effects of testing on at-risk students, completion, dropping out, curricular offerings, attitudes, etc. include those of Schleisman (1999); the *Southern Regional Education Board (1998); Webster, Mendro, Orsak, Weerasinghe & Bembry (1997); Jones (1996); Boylan (1996); Jones, 1993; Jacobson (1992); Grisay (1991); Johnstone (1990); Task Force on Educational Assessment Programs [Florida] (1979); Wellisch, MacQueen, Carriere & Duck (1978); Enochs (1978); Pronaratna (1976); and McWilliams & Thomas (1976)."
144 Brian A. Jacob Lars Lefgren "Aware of the importance of education, economists have spent considerable effort examining what factors affect academic achievement. There is a large literature on the importance of financial resources in determining educational outcomes. However, researchers have paid considerably less attention to remedial programs designed to improve the performance of low achieving students, including summer school and grade retention (Eide and Showalter forthcoming)." Dismissive REMEDIAL EDUCATION AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: A REGRESSION-DISCONTINUITY ANALYSIS, p.1 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 8918  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w8918 For example, from Table 3, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies: "Relevant pre-2000 studies of the effects of testing on at-risk students, completion, dropping out, curricular offerings, attitudes, etc. include those of Schleisman (1999); the *Southern Regional Education Board (1998); Webster, Mendro, Orsak, Weerasinghe & Bembry (1997); Jones (1996); Boylan (1996); Jones, 1993; Jacobson (1992); Grisay (1991); Johnstone (1990); Task Force on Educational Assessment Programs [Florida] (1979); Wellisch, MacQueen, Carriere & Duck (1978); Enochs (1978); Pronaratna (1976); and McWilliams & Thomas (1976)."
145 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “The productivity implications of choice have been sadly neglected by the literature on school choice.” p. 293 Dismissive School Choice and School Productivity. Could School Choice Be a Tide that Lifts All Boats? The Economics of School Choice, January 2003  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10091.pdf
146 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “Although a great deal of research has dealt indirectly with school productivity (most famously, the “does money matter?” debate), productivity has been neglected by research on school choice.” p. 287 Dismissive School Choice and School Productivity. Could School Choice Be a Tide that Lifts All Boats? The Economics of School Choice, January 2003  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10091.pdf
147 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “[T]his body of research [on school productivity] is often silent about this fact (and almost never controls for it).” p. 295 Dismissive, Denigrating School Choice and School Productivity. Could School Choice Be a Tide that Lifts All Boats? The Economics of School Choice, January 2003  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10091.pdf
148 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “Endogenous school choice in areas with bad public schools generates bias if a researcher naively estimates the effect of choice on productivity.” p. 303 Denigrating School Choice and School Productivity. Could School Choice Be a Tide that Lifts All Boats? The Economics of School Choice, January 2003  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10091.pdf
149 Hoxby, Caroline M.    “There are, however, several problems with using wages and income to measure achievement, including a paucity of data linked to schools, questionable validity for women, and the impossibility of analyzing a reform until at least twenty years after its occurrence.” p. 305 Denigrating School Choice and School Productivity. Could School Choice Be a Tide that Lifts All Boats? The Economics of School Choice, January 2003  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10091.pdf
150 David N. Figlio Lawrence S. Getzler “In part because of the newness of school accountability systems, we know of few attempts to seriously quantify school responses to these incentives.”  Dismissive Accountability, Ability and Disability: Gaming The System, p.2 NBER Working Paper 9307, October 2002  NBER funders http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.159.6905&rep=rep1&type=pdf
151 David N. Figlio Lawrence S. Getzler “While ours is the only paper to apply student-level fixed effects models to this topic, we know of two other current working papers that describe similar issues.”  1stness Accountability, Ability and Disability: Gaming The System, p.3 NBER Working Paper 9307, October 2002  NBER funders http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.159.6905&rep=rep1&type=pdf
152 Hoxby, Caroline M.    Up to this point, researchers have focused on test quality and simply assumed that the programs are expensive enough to crowd out other policies, such as class size reduction or higher teacher salaries. Researchers have also assumed that it is so expensive to have a good accountability program (which includes good comprehensive tests, well-defined standards, an effective report card system, and safeguards that prevent cheating and teaching the test) that only poor accountability systems will be affordable.” (abstract) Denigrating The Cost of Accountability  NBER Working Paper No. 8855, April 2002   NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w8855.pdf
153 Brian A. Jacob Lars Lefgren "As standards and accountability have become increasingly prominent features of the educational landscape, educators have relied more on remedial programs such as summer school and grade retention to help low-achieving students meet minimum academic standards. Yet the evidence on the effectiveness of such programs is mixed, and prior research suffers from selection bias." Denigrating Remedial Education and Student Achievement: A Regression-Discontinuity Analysis, Abstract NBER Working Paper 8918, May 2002     For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
154 Brian A. Jacob Lars Lefgren "However, researchers have paid considerably less attention to remedial programs designed to improve the performance of low achieving students, including summer school and grade retention (Eide and Showalter (forthcoming)." p.1 Dismissive Remedial Education and Student Achievement: A Regression-Discontinuity Analysis NBER Working Paper 8918, May 2002    
155 Brian A. Jacob Lars Lefgren "However, prior studies do not adequately address the potential biases introduced by the non-random selection into summer school and retention."  Denigrating Remedial Education and Student Achievement: A Regression-Discontinuity Analysis NBER Working Paper 8918, May 2002    
156 David N. Figlio Thomas Downes "Three recent papers … provide a model for future empirical research on the impact of tax and expenditure limits." Dismissive Tax Revolts and School Performance, p.6 National Invitational Conference on Improving Educational Productivity: Lessons from Economics, November 2000 Laboratory for Student Success, Temple U.     
157 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas "This paper takes the first look at the role that this type of added information plays in the capitalization of school quality measures." 1stness What's in a Grade? School Report Cards and House Prices NBER Working Paper No. 8019, Issued in November 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w8019
158 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas "While a rarity one decade ago, today nearly every state routinely publishes 'school report cards' describing school academic outcoes, ot at least releases student test performance data to media outlets for public distribution." p.1 1stness What's in a Grade? School Report Cards and House Prices NBER Working Paper No. 8019, Issued in November 2000 (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w8019 As part of his Lake Wobegon Effect investigation in the 1980s, John J. Cannel asked every state for information on student test scores, and received detailed replies from most.
159 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas "However, to date we know of no research that explores the effects of states' providing additional information about school quality besides test score data." p.2 1stness What's in a Grade? School Report Cards and House Prices NBER Working Paper No. 8019, Issued in November 2000 (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w8019  
160 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas “This paper provides the first empirical evidence on the effects of grading standards, measured at the teacher level.”  1stness Do High Grading Standards Affect Student Performance?, abstract NBER Working Paper 7985, October 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7985.pdf
161 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas “While the aforementioned papers provide careful and important evidence of the effects of grading standards, there are numerous gaps remaining in this literature.”  Dismissive Do High Grading Standards Affect Student Performance?, p.1 NBER Working Paper 7985, October 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7985.pdf
162 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas “However, very little empirical work has to date been completed on this topic." Dismissive Do High Grading Standards Affect Student Performance?. P.1 NBER Working Paper 7985, October 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7985.pdf
163 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas “Third, the existing literature (as well as almost all of the work studying other determinants of student outcomes) focuses on students iin upper grades rather than at the elementary level. Dismissive Do High Grading Standards Affect Student Performance?, p.2 NBER Working Paper 7985, October 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7985.pdf
164 Julian R. Betts Jeff Grogger "Despite recent theoretical work and proposals from educational reformers, there is little empirical work on the effects of higher grading standards." Dismissive The Impact of Grading Standards on Student Achievement, Educational Attainment, and Entry-Level Earnings. Abstract NBER Working Paper No. 7875, September 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7875
165 Julian R. Betts Jeff Grogger "it is surprising how little empirical work has been devoted to understanding how other aspects of the educational environment affect student behavior. In particular, given economists’ general interests in incentive schemes, it is surprising how little empirical work has focused on educational incentives." Dismissive The Impact of Grading Standards on Student Achievement, Educational Attainment, and Entry-Level Earnings. p.1 NBER Working Paper No. 7875, September 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7875
166 Julian R. Betts Jeff Grogger "The only other empirical study that we know of that addresses similar questions is Lillard and DeCicca (forthcoming). Dismissive The Impact of Grading Standards on Student Achievement, Educational Attainment, and Entry-Level Earnings. p.1 NBER Working Paper No. 7875, September 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7875
167 Julian R. Betts Jeff Grogger "The only other empirical study that we know of that addresses similar questions is Lillard and DeCicca (forthcoming)." p.3 Dismissive The Impact of Grading Standards on Student Achievement, Educational Attainment, and Entry-Level Earnings. p.1 NBER Working Paper No. 7875, September 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7875
168 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Since the release of Equality of Educational Opportunity (the "Coleman Report") in 1966, the educational policy debate has often been reduced to a series of simplistic arguments and assertions about the role of schools in producing achievement. The character of this debate has itself been heavily influenced by confusing and conflicting research. While this research has suffered from inadequate data, imprecise definitions of the underlying problems and issues have been as important in obscuring the fundamental policy choices." p.1 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
169 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "In comparison to studies that use only a small sample of students from each school, these data provide much more precise estimates of school average test scores and test score gains." p. 4 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
170 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "While some past work has pursued portions of this, the limitations of previous data required the imposition of extremely strong assumptions to identify the various components of achievement gain." pp.6–7 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
171 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Many studies use the between school variation as a percentage of the total . . . to measure the contribution of school quality to achievement. This ratio is not, however, a clear indication of the possibilities for policy manipulation, . . ." pp. 8–9 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
172 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "[S]tudies that use the between school variance component as an upper bound for the potential contribution of schooling may seriously underestimate the importance of schools." p. 11 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
173 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Like most educational studies, this estimation relies on self-reported school data, and these data are prone to significant reporting errors. Unlike most studies, however, we have access to longitudinal information on key data, and therefore we can adjust for inconsistencies that occur over time." p. 23 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
174 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Past research attempts to clarify the impact of schools on student performance have tended to worsen the situation by providing conflicting and unreliable conclusions." p. 31 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
175 Eric A. Hanushek Dongwook Kim International comparative studies seldom yield conclusive findings. . . . Comparative growth analyses-relying on varying samples, differing analytical foci, and imperfect data-have led to some general findings along with many suggestive answers of questionable reliability. p. 33 Denigrating Schooling, Labor Force Inequality, and Economic Growth NBER Working Paper 5399, December 1995  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w5399.pdf
176 Eric A. Hanushek Dongwook Kim Just as was the case within countries, little evidence suggests  that simple resource policies are likely to improve student (and national) performance. p.34 Dismissive Schooling, Labor Force Inequality, and Economic Growth NBER Working Paper 5399, December 1995  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w5399.pdf
                 
                 
      Author cites (and accepts as fact without checking) someone elses dismissive review          
      Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work          
      Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.          
                 
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