HOME:  Dismissive Reviews in Education Policy Research
  Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Funders Link1
1 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "... both critics and proponents of international and national testing often fail to differentiate among alternative forms and uses of testing, leading to a confused debate."  Denigrating Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation &  NBER funders https://www.nber.org/papers/w24836
2 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "For example, in the United States consideration of testing is mostly restricted to such accountability systems as exemplified by No Child Left Behind (NCLB)." Dismissive Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation &  NBER funders https://www.nber.org/papers/w24836
3 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "While there have been previous evaluations of the impact of accountability systems, largely within the United States (Figlio and Loeb (2011)), it is unclear how to generalize from these." Dismissive Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation &  NBER funders https://www.nber.org/papers/w24836
4 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We provide the first evidence that cumulative heat exposure inhibits cognitive skill development and that school air conditioning can mitigate this effect." 1stness Heat and Learning, abstract National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
5 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "New data providing the first measures of school-level air conditioning penetration across the US suggest such infrastructure almost entirely offsets these effects." 1stness Heat and Learning, abstract National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
6 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "A fact less well-established is that hotter countries also tend to score lower on internationally comparable measures of academic achievement." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
7 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "To show this, we construct the first nationwide measures of school-level air conditioning penetration in the United States by surveying students and guidance counselors across the country about heat-related conditions in their schools." 1stness Heat and Learning, 3 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
8 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "These findings contribute to a growing literature on the impact of heat on individual outcomes and cognition more specifically …" Dismissive Heat and Learning, 3 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
9 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We believe our study is the first to precisely estimate the direct effect of cumulative heat exposure on learning … " 1stness Heat and Learning, 3 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
10 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "… we are the first to empirically assess the effect of school air conditioning on learning, and to document heterogeneity by socioeconomic status, …" 1stness Heat and Learning, 4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
11 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "The only other paper that precisely identifies the impact of cumulative heat exposure on human capital accumulation in a developed country context is Isen et al. (2017), which focuses on in utero exposure and thus identifies a very different channel from the learning channel we study here." Denigrating Heat and Learning, 4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
12 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Our analysis of the mitigating effects of air conditioning is also one of the first to provide evidence on the efficacy of specific investments in educational infrastructure." 1stness Heat and Learning, 4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
13 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Ours is the first study of which we are aware to study the effectiveness of adaptation in the context of human capital accumulation." 1stness Heat and Learning, 5 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
14 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "No comprehensive national data set of school calendars covering this time period exists, so we assign to each student a likely school start and end date based on the calendar of the largest school district in that student’s state, as seen in Figure A.1." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 8 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
15 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Previous research suggests that such pollutants can affect student absenteeism and performance, at least in the short run (Currie et al., 2009; Ebenstein et al., 2016), though there is relatively less evidence regarding the impact of longer-term exposures." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 10 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
16 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We provide the first evidence that cumulative heat exposure inhibits cognitive skill development and that school air conditioning can mitigate this effect." 1stness Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
17 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "These findings contribute to a growing literature on the impact of heat on individual outcomes by showing that cumulative heat exposure generates long-term reductions in human capital accumulation." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
18 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We are also the first to isolate the impact of one specific form of school infrastructure investment, namely school air conditioning." 1stness Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
19 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Ours is the first study of which we are aware to estimate the effectiveness of such adaptation in the context of human capital accumulation, …" 1stness Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018   NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf
20 Daphna Bassok Thomas Dee, Scott Latham "However, we know little about whether these accountability reforms operate as theorized."  Dismissive The Effects of Accountability Incentives in Early Childhood Education, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 23859, Issued in September 2017  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w23859
21 Daphna Bassok Thomas Dee, Scott Latham "This study provides the first empirical evidence on this question using data from North Carolina, a state with a mature QRIS." 1stness The Effects of Accountability Incentives in Early Childhood Education, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 23859, Issued in September 2017  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w23859
22 Peter De Vlieger Brian A. Jacob, Kevin Stange "Instructors are a chief input into the higher education production process, yet we know very little about their role in promoting student success." Dismissive Measuring Instructor Effectiveness in Higher Education, abstract "This paper was prepared for the NBER Conference “Productivity in Higher Education” held on June 1, 2016." Published by NBER November 30,2016. NBER funders  
23 Peter De Vlieger Brian A. Jacob, Kevin Stange "Professors and instructors are a chief input into the higher education production process, yet we know very little about their role in promoting student success." Dismissive Measuring Instructor Effectiveness in Higher Education, p.1 "This paper was prepared for the NBER Conference “Productivity in Higher Education” held on June 1, 2016." Published by NBER November 30,2016. NBER funders  
24 Peter De Vlieger Brian A. Jacob, Kevin Stange "Yet relatively little is known about the importance of or correlates of instructor effectiveness in postsecondary education." Dismissive Measuring Instructor Effectiveness in Higher Education, p.4 "This paper was prepared for the NBER Conference “Productivity in Higher Education” held on June 1, 2016." Published by NBER November 30,2016. NBER funders  
25 Peter De Vlieger Brian A. Jacob, Kevin Stange "Yet little is known about instructor effectiveness in postsecondary education, in part due to difficulties with outcome measurement and self-selection." Dismissive Measuring Instructor Effectiveness in Higher Education, p.4 "This paper was prepared for the NBER Conference “Productivity in Higher Education” held on June 1, 2016." Published by NBER November 30,2016. NBER funders  
26 Brian A. Jacob Thomas S. Dee, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "…despite widespread concerns over test validity and the manipulation of scores, we know little about the factors that lead educators to manipulate student scores (e.g., accountability policies versus individual students traits). Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
27 Brian A. Jacob Thomas S. Dee, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "…there is little empirical evidence on whether test score manipulation has any long-run consequences for students' educational outcomes and performance gaps by race, ethnicity, and gender." Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
28 Brian A. Jacob Thomas S. Dee, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "Our results contribute to an emerging literature that documents both the moral hazard that can be created by test-scoring procedures…. In early work, Jacob and Levitt (2003) find... Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.3 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
29 Brian A. Jacob Thomas S. Dee, Will Dobbie, Jonah Rockoff "Our results contribute to an emerging literature that documents both the moral hazard that can be created by test-scoring procedures…. In early work, Jacob and Levitt (2003) find... Dismissive The Causes and Consequences of Test Score Manipulation: Evidence from the New York Regents Examinations, p.3 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 22165, April 2016 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w22165
30 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "Policymakers and researchers … have sought policies to provide all children with effective teachers. The selective retention of effectice teachers has been one of the most-discussed  strategies that may contribute to this goal. … However, we know relatively little about how such policies would work in practice. In particular, the capacity of districts to identify effective teachers at the hiring stage is limited (Boyd, et al., 2008, Rockoff & Speroni, 2010, Rockoff, et al., 2011)."  Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
31 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "Futhermore, research and practice have only recently begun making progress on accurately and reliably assessing teacher effectiveness." Denigrating Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
32 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "However, we are unaware of any research that documents how the patterns of teacher turnover created by such policies (i.e., the attrition of teachers sanctioned for low performance, other teachers choosing to leave, and the hiring of new teachers) influence student achievement. In this study, we provide such evidence...'" 1stness Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
33 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "There is only limited evidence that financial incentives make a difference in retaining teachers generally (Clotfelter, Glennie, Ladd, & Vigdor, 2008; Glazerman & Seifullah, 2012) and high-performing teachers specifically (Dee & Wyckoff, 2015).  Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
34 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "In the absence of real-world evidence on the effects of policies that improve teacher composition, researchers hace simulated the effects of such policies." Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
35 Melinda Adnot Thomas Dee, Veronica Katz, James Wyckoff "In sum, there is at best limited empirical evidence of the effects of differential retention policies on teacher quality and student achievement. What evidence does directly bear on the issue are simulations dependent on a series of simplifying assumptions." Dismissive Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS, p.4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21922, January 2016 NBER funders  
36 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "An extensive theoretical and qualitative literature stresses the promise of instructional practices and content aligned with the cultural experiences of minority students. ... However, the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of these courses is limited." Dismissive The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
37 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "... the available quantitative evidence on the causal effects of ES courses (and, culturally relevant pedagogy, in general) on student outcomes is limited, ... This study provides such evidence …" Denigrating The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
38 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "While the expansion of ES courses illustrates both their appeal and concerns, the quantitative evidence on their effects is relatively limited. Furthermore, the evidence that is available relies on research designs that cannot necessarily support credible causal inference." Dismissive, Denigrating The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
39 Thomas Dee Emily Penner "To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of any type of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) in a quantitative study that supports credible causal inferences." 1stness The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21865, January 2016 "Financial support for this research came from the Stanford GSE Incentive Fund for Projects in SFUSD and from the Institute of Education Sciences Postdoctoral Training Fellowship under award number R305B130017." &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w21865
40 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "…more than a decade after NCLB, we know very little about the impact of test-based accountability on students' long-run life chances.", p.2 Dismissive School accountabiity, postsecondary attainment, and earnings Harvard Graduate School of Education and the National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2015   NBER funders  
41 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "The literature on school accountability has focused on low-stakes tests…", p.7 Dismissive School accountabiity, postsecondary attainment, and earnings Harvard Graduate School of Education and the National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2015   NBER funders  
42 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "To our knowledge, only two studies look at the long-term impact of school accountability on postsecondary outcomes.", p.8 Dismissive School accountabiity, postsecondary attainment, and earnings Harvard Graduate School of Education and the National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2015   NBER funders  
43 Ann Huff Stevens Michal Kurlaender, Michel Grosz "While career technical education (CTE) programs have often been mentioned as an attractive alternative to four-year colleges for some students, very little systematic evidence exists on the returns to specific vocational certiticates and degrees." Dismissive Career technical education and labor market outcomes: Evidence from California Community Colleges National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #21137, Issued in April 2015   NBER funders  
44 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "However, more than a decade after the passage of NCLB, we know very little about the impact of test-based accountability on students’ long-run life chances. Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.2 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444
45 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "Previous work has found large gains on high-stakes tests, with some evidence of smaller gains on low-stakes exams that is inconsistent across grades and subjects (e.g. Koretz and Barron 1998, Linn 2000, Klein et al. 2000, Carnoy and Loeb 2002, Hanushek and Raymond 2005, Jacob 2005, Wong, Cook and Steiner 2009, Dee and Jacob 2010, Reback, Rockoff and Schwartz 2011). Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.2 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444
46 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "...Previous research has focused on measuring performance on low-stakes exams." Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.4 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444
47 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "The literature on school accountability has focused on low-stakes tests, in an attempt to measure whether gains on high-stakes exams represent generalizable gains in student learning. Recent studies of accountability in multiple states have found achievement gains across subjects and grades on low-stakes exams (Ladd 1999, Carnoy and Loeb 2002, Greene and Winters 2003, Hanushek and Raymond 2005, Figlio and Rouse 2006, Chiang 2009, Dee and Jacob 2010, Wong, Cook and Steiner 2011, Allen and Burgess 2012)." Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.6 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444
48 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "To our knowledge, only two studies look at the long-term impact of school accountability on postsecondary outcomes. Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.7 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444
49 C. Kirabo Jackson   "This paper provides the first estimates of worker-firm match quality using output data as opposed to inferring productivity from wages or employment durations." 1stness Match Quality, Worker Productivity, and Worker Mobility: Direct Evidence From Teachers NBER Working Paper No. 15990 & The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(4), pages 1096-1116, October. NBER funders https://www.nber.org/papers/w15990
50 Eric Bettinger   "Coshocton is the first study in economics to focus on financial incentives for student achievement in primary schools." 1stness PAYING TO LEARN: THE EFFECT OF FINANCIAL INCENTIVES ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEST SCORES NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 16333 NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w16333
51 Brian A. Jacob   “And, yet, there is little empirical evidence on whether such incentives will change teacher behavior or improve student achievement.” p. 2 Dismissive The Effect of Employment Protection on Teacher Effort University of Michigan & NBER, March 2012 NBER funders http://cep.lse.ac.uk/seminarpapers/07-05-13-BJ.pdf
52 Brian A. Jacob   “In addition, this analysis contributes to the economic literature on employment protection more generally. To the best of my knowledge, it is one of the few empirical studies of the impact of employment protection on worker effort...” p. 4 1stness The Effect of Employment Protection on Teacher Effort University of Michigan & NBER, March 2012 NBER funders http://cep.lse.ac.uk/seminarpapers/07-05-13-BJ.pdf
53 Brian A. Jacob   “ . . . the only study to directly examine this issue in the public sector.” p. 4 1stness The Effect of Employment Protection on Teacher Effort University of Michigan & NBER, March 2012 NBER funders http://cep.lse.ac.uk/seminarpapers/07-05-13-BJ.pdf
54 Brian A. Jacob   “Surprisingly few studies have examined the impact of employment protection on worker behavior.” p. 5 Dismissive The Effect of Employment Protection on Teacher Effort University of Michigan & NBER, March 2012 NBER funders http://cep.lse.ac.uk/seminarpapers/07-05-13-BJ.pdf
55 Brian A. Jacob   “Two recent reviews of pay-for-performance in education conclude that the existing evidence on merit pay is limited and shows mixed results (Springer and Podgursky 2008, Lavy 2008).” p. 6 Dismissive The Effect of Employment Protection on Teacher Effort University of Michigan & NBER, March 2012 NBER funders http://cep.lse.ac.uk/seminarpapers/07-05-13-BJ.pdf
56 Brian A. Jacob   “In contrast, there has been remarkably little research on the demand side of the teacher labor market. For example, few studies have examined how principals hire or fire teachers, or how changes in personnel policies might influence teacher quality.” p. 2 Dismissive Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers? NBER Working Paper No. 15715, February 2010  NBER funders http://www-personal.umich.edu/~baBrian A. Jacob/w15715_teacher_firing.pdf
57 Brian A. Jacob   This void is not unique to education research. There is a vast economics literature on employee compensation, for example, but relatively few empirical studies that examine the factors that employers consider when hiring or dismissing workers.” p. 3 Dismissive Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers? NBER Working Paper No. 15715, February 2010  NBER funders http://www-personal.umich.edu/~baBrian A. Jacob/w15715_teacher_firing.pdf
58 Brian A. Jacob   “While many studies mention the determinants of job displacement, few studies attempt to carefully explore employer preferences for worker characteristics. One important exception is the literature on employer discrimination.” p. 6 Dismissive Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers? NBER Working Paper No. 15715, February 2010  NBER funders http://www-personal.umich.edu/~baBrian A. Jacob/w15715_teacher_firing.pdf
59 Li Feng David N. Figlio, Tim Sass "This paper presents the first causal evidence on the effects of school accountability systems on teacher labor markets." 1stness School accountability and teacher mobility, abstract NBER Working Paper No. 16070, Issued in June 2010  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w16070
60 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes. This project addresses this critical issue..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute  
61 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...approximately one-third of entering postsecondary students require remedial or developmental work before entering college-level courses. However, little is known about the causal impact of remediation on student outcomes. ...This project..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute  
62 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes. This project addresses this critical issue..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009   NBER funders  
63 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...approximately one-third of entering postsecondary students require remedial or developmental work before entering college-level courses. However, little is known about the causal impact of remediation on student outcomes. ...This project..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009   NBER funders  
64 Thomas J. Kane Douglas O. Staiger “Although many analysts have used non-experimental data to estimate teacher effects  …, we were able to identify only one previous study using random assignment to estimate the variation in teacher effects.” p. 4 Dismissive Estimating Teacher Impacts on Student Achievement: An Experimental Evaluation NBER Working Paper 14607, December 2008 This analysis was supported by the Spencer Foundation.  Initial data collection was supported by a grant from the National Board on Professional Teaching Standards to the Urban Education Partnership in Los Angeles. &   NBER funders www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14607.pdf
65 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “Research on the relationship between teachers' characteristics and teacher effectiveness has been underway for over a century, yet little progress has been made in linking teacher quality with factors observable at the time of hire.” p. 1 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support. &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
66 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “However, most research on teacher effectiveness has examined a relatively small set of teacher characteristics, such as graduate education and certification . . . researchers’ lack of success in predicting new teacher performance may be driven by a narrow focus on commonly available data.” p. 1 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
67 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “While many studies have been conducted, few definitive conclusions have been made. One reason has been the widespread but controversial use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. …” p. 8 Denigrating Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
68 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “However, there is little work examining the relationship between self-efficacy and student learning.” p. 9 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
69 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “In addition to being one of the first studies of teacher value-added and its correlation with principal evaluations, this paper also finds a significant positive relationship between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and student achievement growth.” p. 10 1stness Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
70 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “While use of commercial selection instruments has grown considerably, there is little systematic evidence on the power of these instruments for predicting teacher effectiveness.” p. 11 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  &  NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
71 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “Research on the relationship between teachers' characteristics and teacher effectiveness has been underway for over a century, yet little progress has been made in linking teacher quality with factors observable at the time of hire.” p. 1 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
72 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “However, most research on teacher effectiveness has examined a relatively small set of teacher characteristics, such as graduate education and certification . . . researchers’ lack of success in predicting new teacher performance may be driven by a narrow focus on commonly available data.” p. 1 Denigrating Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
73 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “While many studies have been conducted, few definitive conclusions have been made. One reason has been the widespread but controversial use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. …” p. 8 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
74 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “However, there is little work examining the relationship between self-efficacy and student learning.” p. 9 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
75 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “In addition to being one of the first studies of teacher value-added and its correlation with principal evaluations, this paper also finds a significant positive relationship between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and student achievement growth.” p. 10 1stness Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
76 Brian A. Jacob Jonah Rockoff, Thomas J. Kane, Douglas O. Staiger “While use of commercial selection instruments has grown considerably, there is little systematic evidence on the power of these instruments for predicting teacher effectiveness.” p. 11 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous
financial support.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf
77 T.R. Stinebrickner R. Stinebrickner "Despite the large amount of attention that has been paid recently to understanding the determinants of educational outcomes, knowledge of the causal effect of the most fundamental input in the education production function - student study time and effort - has remained virtually non-existent. In this paper..." Dismissive The causal effect of studying on academic performance. NBER Working Paper No. 13341, 2007  NBER supporters  
78 Julian Betts Jeff George "Despite recent theoretical work and proposals from educational reformers, there is little empirical work on the effects of higher grading standards. In this paper…" Dismissive The impact of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings, abstract National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 7875 This research was supported by a grant from the American Educational Research Association which receives funds for its "AERA Grants Program" from the National Science Foundation and the National Center for Education Sttistics under NSF Grant #RED-9452861. http://www.nber.org/papers/w7875
79 Julian Betts Jeff George "...it is surprising how little empirical work has been devoted to understanding how other aspects of the educational environment affect student behavior. In particular, given economists’ general interests in incentive schemes, it is surprising how little empirical work has focused on educational incentives." Dismissive The impact of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 7875 This research was supported by a grant from the American Educational Research Association which receives funds for its "AERA Grants Program" from the National Science Foundation and the National Center for Education Sttistics under NSF Grant #RED-9452861. http://www.nber.org/papers/w7875
80 Julian Betts Jeff George "The only other empirical study that we know of that addresses similar questions is Lillard and DeCicca (forthcoming)." Dismissive The impact of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings, p.1 National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 7875 This research was supported by a grant from the American Educational Research Association which receives funds for its "AERA Grants Program" from the National Science Foundation and the National Center for Education Sttistics under NSF Grant #RED-9452861. http://www.nber.org/papers/w7875
81 Brian A. Jacob   "While such divergence has been documented in several studies, there has been no systematic analysis of this issue nationwide." Dismissive TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: AN INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCE ON NAEP AND STATE ASSESSMENTS, p.2 NBER Working Paper 12817 Funding for this project was generously provided by the U.S. Department of Education NAEP Secondary Analysis Grant . http://www.nber.org/papers/w12817
82 Brian A. Jacob   "To fill this gap in the research literature, over a period of several years I collected…" Dismissive TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: AN INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCE ON NAEP AND STATE ASSESSMENTS, p.3 NBER Working Paper 12817 Funding for this project was generously provided by the U.S. Department of Education NAEP Secondary Analysis Grant . http://www.nber.org/papers/w12817
83 Brian A. Jacob   "More importantly, there has been little research on the reasons why student performance differs between NAEP and local assessments." Dismissive TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: AN INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCE ON NAEP AND STATE ASSESSMENTS, p.11 NBER Working Paper 12817 Funding for this project was generously provided by the U.S. Department of Education NAEP Secondary Analysis Grant . http://www.nber.org/papers/w12817
84 Brian A. Jacob   "Jacob (2005) makes an effort to fill this gap. He found…" Dismissive TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: AN INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCE ON NAEP AND STATE ASSESSMENTS, p.12 NBER Working Paper 12817 Funding for this project was generously provided by the U.S. Department of Education NAEP Secondary Analysis Grant . http://www.nber.org/papers/w12817
85 Julie Berry Cullen Randall Reback "Although the potential for this dysfunctional response is well recognized, there has been relatively limited systematic analysis of the link or its practical relevance." p.2 Dismissive TINKERING TOWARD ACCOLADES: SCHOOL GAMING UNDER A PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM NBER Working Paper 12286, June 2006 The authors would like to thank the Office of Tax Policy Research and the Department of Economics at the University of Michigan for providing funding for data acquisition http://www.nber.org/papers/w12286
86 Julie Berry Cullen Randall Reback "There is mixed evidence whether improvements on the test instruments used for accountability are matched by parallel gains on other exams (e.g., Hanushek and Raymond, 2005; Jacob, 2005; Klein et al., 2000)." footnote 2 Dismissive TINKERING TOWARD ACCOLADES: SCHOOL GAMING UNDER A PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM NBER Working Paper 12286, June 2006 The authors would like to thank the Office of Tax Policy Research and the Department of Economics at the University of Michigan for providing funding for data acquisition http://www.nber.org/papers/w12286
87 Julie Berry Cullen Randall Reback "Our paper differs from prior studies in that it exploits the specific structure and evolution of the performance targets of the Texas system to formulate more precise school-level incentives." p.3 Denigrating TINKERING TOWARD ACCOLADES: SCHOOL GAMING UNDER A PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM NBER Working Paper 12286, June 2006 The authors would like to thank the Office of Tax Policy Research and the Department of Economics at the University of Michigan for providing funding for data acquisition http://www.nber.org/papers/w12286
88 Julie Berry Cullen Randall Reback "In addition to students enrolled in tested grades being exempted, low-achieving students can be excluded by being retained in untested grades or encouraged to drop out. Jacob (2005) reports higher retention rates in untested grades following the implementation of the accountability system in Chicago. Haney (2000) reports a similar finding for minorities in Texas, although Carnoy et al. (2001) show that this trend was pre-existing. The literature linking testing standards to dropout rates has focused on the negative impact of grade retention and failure on completion (e.g., Reardon, 1996; Kreitzer et al., 1989), rather than on the interaction with school incentives." footnote 8 Dismissive TINKERING TOWARD ACCOLADES: SCHOOL GAMING UNDER A PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM NBER Working Paper 12286, June 2006 The authors would like to thank the Office of Tax Policy Research and the Department of Economics at the University of Michigan for providing funding for data acquisition http://www.nber.org/papers/w12286
89 Victor Lavy   "However, there is little evidence of the effect of teachers’ incentives in schools." Dismissive PERFORMANCE PAY AND TEACHERS’ EFFORT, PRODUCTIVITY AND GRADING ETHICS NBER Working Paper 10622, June 2004   http://www.nber.org/papers/w10622
90 Eric Hanushek Margaret Raymond "The final strand of relevant literature pertains to accountability itself. Although a recent policy effort, policies related to accountability have already become quite controversial – rising to the level of front page stories in the New York Times (Winter (2002)), Much of the work is very new and has not appeared journals yet." p.5 Dismissive DOES SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY LEAD TO IMPROVED STUDENT PERFORMANCE? NBER Working Paper 10591, June 2004 This work was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute. http://www.nber.org/papers/w10591
91 Eric Hanushek Margaret Raymond "The available studies generally support the view that accountability has had a positive effect on student outcomes, although the limited observations introduce some uncertainty (Carnoy and Loeb (2002); Hanushek and Raymond (2003b); Jacob (2003); Peterson and West (2003))." Dismissive DOES SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY LEAD TO IMPROVED STUDENT PERFORMANCE? NBER Working Paper 10591, June 2004 This work was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute. http://www.nber.org/papers/w10591
92 Eric Hanushek Margaret Raymond "Nonetheless, as we return to below, little analysis provides information on the longer run outcomes of this nature [on gaming accountability programs]" Dismissive DOES SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY LEAD TO IMPROVED STUDENT PERFORMANCE? NBER Working Paper 10591, June 2004 This work was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute. http://www.nber.org/papers/w10591
93 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, abstract Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
94 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "However, despite the proliferation of remediation, little is known about its effects on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.1 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
95 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate on remediation and the thousands of underprepared students who enter the nation’s higher education institutions each year, little is known about the effects of remediation on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.2 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
96 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "After assessing the literature on remediation, the Ohio Board of Regents (2001) concluded that there were no benchmarks by which to judge the success of higher education's remediation efforts. Likewise, two reviews of the literature on remedial and developmental education found the bulk of studies to be seriously flawed methodologically (O’Hear and MacDonald, 1995; Boylan and Saxon, 1999). ... As noted by Phipps (1998), “conjecture and criticism have filled the void created by the lack of basic information.” Denigrating SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, pp.2-3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
97 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "The lack of analysis on the effects of remediation is partly due to a lack of data." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, pp.2-3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
98 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...this paper addresses a hole in the literature and discusses how higher education attempts to assimilate under prepared students and train them for future college-level work and labor market success. " Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.3 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
99 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Additionally, given the system-wide nature of the data, we are able to distinguish between students who withdraw from school altogether and those who transfer to any other Ohio public colleges, an improvement over the information available in most studies." Denigrating SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.4 Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research. &  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369
100 Eric Bettinger   "The Pell Grant program is the largest means-tested financial assistance available to postsecondary students across the United States, yet researchers have only limited evidence on the causal effects of these grants." Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, abstract NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
101 Eric Bettinger   "Yet despite this continued expansion of Pell, researchers have only limited evidence on the causal effects of these grants." Dismissive HOW FINANCIAL AID AFFECTS PERSISTENCE, p.1 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 10242, January 2004  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10242
102 Brian A. Jacob Lars Lefgren "As standards and accountability have become an increasingly prominent feature of the educational landscape, educators have relied more on remedial programs such as summer school and grade retention to help low-achieving students meet minimum academic standards. Yet the evidence on the effectiveness of such programs is mixed, and prior research suffers from selection bias." Denigrating REMEDIAL EDUCATION AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: A REGRESSION-DISCONTINUITY ANALYSIS, abstract NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 8918   http://www.nber.org/papers/w8918
103 Brian A. Jacob Lars Lefgren "Aware of the importance of education, economists have spent considerable effort examining what factors affect academic achievement. There is a large literature on the importance of financial resources in determining educational outcomes. However, researchers have paid considerably less attention to remedial programs designed to improve the performance of low achieving students, including summer school and grade retention (Eide and Showalter forthcoming)." Dismissive REMEDIAL EDUCATION AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: A REGRESSION-DISCONTINUITY ANALYSIS, p.1 NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper 8918   http://www.nber.org/papers/w8918
104 David N. Figlio Lawrence S. Getzler “In part because of the newness of school accountability systems, we know of few attempts to seriously quantify school responses to these incentives.”  Dismissive Accountability, Ability and Disability: Gaming The System, p.2 NBER Working Paper 9307, October 2002  NBER funders http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.159.6905&rep=rep1&type=pdf
105 David N. Figlio Lawrence S. Getzler “While ours is the only paper to apply student-level fixed effects models to this topic, we know of two other current working papers that describe similar issues.”  1stness Accountability, Ability and Disability: Gaming The System, p.3 NBER Working Paper 9307, October 2002  NBER funders http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.159.6905&rep=rep1&type=pdf
106 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas "This paper takes the first look at the role that this type of added information plays in the capitalization of school quality measures." 1stness What's in a Grade? School Report Cards and House Prices NBER Working Paper No. 8019, Issued in November 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w8019
107 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas “This paper provides the first empirical evidence on the effects of grading standards, measured at the teacher level.”  1stness Do High Grading Standards Affect Student Performance?, abstract NBER Working Paper 7985, October 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7985.pdf
108 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas “While the aforementioned papers provide careful and important evidence of the effects of grading standards, there are numerous gaps remaining in this literature.”  Dismissive Do High Grading Standards Affect Student Performance?, p.1 NBER Working Paper 7985, October 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7985.pdf
109 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas “However, very little empirical work has to date been completed on this topic." Dismissive Do High Grading Standards Affect Student Performance?. P.1 NBER Working Paper 7985, October 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7985.pdf
110 David N. Figlio Maurice E. Lucas “Third, the existing literature (as well as almost all of the work studying other determinants of student outcomes) focuses on students iin upper grades rather than at the elementary level. Dismissive Do High Grading Standards Affect Student Performance?, p.2 NBER Working Paper 7985, October 2000  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w7985.pdf
111 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Since the release of Equality of Educational Opportunity (the "Coleman Report") in 1966, the educational policy debate has often been reduced to a series of simplistic arguments and assertions about the role of schools in producing achievement. The character of this debate has itself been heavily influenced by confusing and conflicting research. While this research has suffered from inadequate data, imprecise definitions of the underlying problems and issues have been as important in obscuring the fundamental policy choices." p.1 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
112 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "In comparison to studies that use only a small sample of students from each school, these data provide much more precise estimates of school average test scores and test score gains." p. 4 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
113 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "While some past work has pursued portions of this, the limitations of previous data required the imposition of extremely strong assumptions to identify the various components of achievement gain." pp.6–7 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
114 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Like most educational studies, this estimation relies on self-reported school data, and these data are prone to significant reporting errors. Unlike most studies, however, we have access to longitudinal information on key data, and therefore we can adjust for inconsistencies that occur over time." p. 23 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
                 
Author cites (and accepts as fact without checking) someone elses dismissive review
Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work
Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.
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