HOME:  Dismissive Reviews in Education Policy Research
  Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Funders Link1
1 Matthew M. Chingos   "Unfortunately, few studies have measured whether interventions aimed at boosting college readiness in high school affect graduation from college." Dismissive What Matters Most for College Completion? Academic Preparation Is a Key Predictor of Success, p.7 American Enterprise Institute & Third Way (6) American Enterprise Instiute funders  
2 Matthew M. Chingos   "Research that is rigorous and relevant should inform policy, but the existing research base is far too limited." Denigrating What Matters Most for College Completion? Academic Preparation Is a Key Predictor of Success, p.9 American Enterprise Institute & Third Way (6) American Enterprise Instiute funders  
3 Matthew M. Chingos Daniel Kuehn "Although several studies have documented the effects of statewide private school choice programs on student test scores, this report is the first to examine the effects of one of these programs on college enrollment and graduation.  1stness The Effects of Statewide Private School Choice on College Enrollment and Graduation, abstract Urban Institute, Washington, DC (September 27, 2017) (3) Urban Institute's funders https://www.urban.org/research/publication/effects-statewide-private-school-choice-college-enrollment-and-graduation
4 Matthew M. Chingos Daniel Kuehn "Recent research on statewide private school choice programs in Indiana, Louisiana, and Ohio has found those programs have a negative effect on student test scores, at least in the early years of student participation. But little research exists on whether participating in a private school choice program affects long-term outcomes, such as college enrollment and degree attainment. Previous research on the long-term effects of private school choice programs has studied small programs, spanning no more than a single city." Dismissive, Denigrating The Effects of Statewide Private School Choice on College Enrollment and Graduation Evidence from the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program, p.V Urban Institute, Washington, DC (September 2017) "This report was funded by the Bill and Susan Oberndorf Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, the Robertson Foundation, Kate and Bill Duhamel, the Foundation for Excellence in Education, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation." https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93471/the_effects_of_statewide_private_school_choice_on_college_enrollment_and_graduation_0.pdf
5 Matthew M. Chingos Daniel Kuehn "This study is the first to examine the impact of a statewide private school choice program on enrollment in and graduation from college." 1stness The Effects of Statewide Private School Choice on College Enrollment and Graduation Evidence from the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program, p.V Urban Institute, Washington, DC (September 2017) "This report was funded by the Bill and Susan Oberndorf Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, the Robertson Foundation, Kate and Bill Duhamel, the Foundation for Excellence in Education, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation." https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93471/the_effects_of_statewide_private_school_choice_on_college_enrollment_and_graduation_0.pdf
6 Matthew M. Chingos Daniel Kuehn "Nevertheless, the evidence on long-term impacts is limited, largely because it takes years for children to progress through the educational system to where their high school graduation, college enrollment, and college graduation rates can be examined. The available high-quality evidence on the long-term impacts of private school choice is limited to a handful of studies, none of which examine statewide programs." Dismissive, Denigrating The Effects of Statewide Private School Choice on College Enrollment and Graduation Evidence from the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program, pp. 1-2 Urban Institute, Washington, DC (September 2017) "This report was funded by the Bill and Susan Oberndorf Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, the Robertson Foundation, Kate and Bill Duhamel, the Foundation for Excellence in Education, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation." https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93471/the_effects_of_statewide_private_school_choice_on_college_enrollment_and_graduation_0.pdf
7 Matthew M. Chingos Daniel Kuehn "Previous academic research on the FTC program focuses on selection into the program and its effects on students in public schools. Figlio, Hart, and Metzger (2010) examine data on income-eligible students who attended public schools in 2006–07 and find that those who participated in the FTC program in the following year tended to come from low-performing schools and to be among the lower-performing students at their public school. Figlio (2014) examines data from 2012–13 and earlier years and reports that this tendency became stronger over time." Dismissive The Effects of Statewide Private School Choice on College Enrollment and Graduation Evidence from the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program, p. 5 Urban Institute, Washington, DC (September 2017) "This report was funded by the Bill and Susan Oberndorf Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, the Robertson Foundation, Kate and Bill Duhamel, the Foundation for Excellence in Education, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation." https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93471/the_effects_of_statewide_private_school_choice_on_college_enrollment_and_graduation_0.pdf
8 Matthew M. Chingos Daniel Kuehn "There is little evidence available on how FTC affected student outcomes because comparable data on in-school outcomes, such as test scores, were not collected for public and private school students." Dismissive The Effects of Statewide Private School Choice on College Enrollment and Graduation Evidence from the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program, p. 5 Urban Institute, Washington, DC (September 2017) "This report was funded by the Bill and Susan Oberndorf Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, the Robertson Foundation, Kate and Bill Duhamel, the Foundation for Excellence in Education, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation." https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93471/the_effects_of_statewide_private_school_choice_on_college_enrollment_and_graduation_0.pdf
9 Matthew M. Chingos Daniel Kuehn "We address this gap in the literature by examining the rates at which FTC participants enrolled in and graduated from public colleges and universities in Florida compared withxsimilar nonparticipating students." Dismissive The Effects of Statewide Private School Choice on College Enrollment and Graduation Evidence from the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program, p. 6 Urban Institute, Washington, DC (September 2017) "This report was funded by the Bill and Susan Oberndorf Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, the Robertson Foundation, Kate and Bill Duhamel, the Foundation for Excellence in Education, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation." https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93471/the_effects_of_statewide_private_school_choice_on_college_enrollment_and_graduation_0.pdf
10 Matthew M. Chingos Daniel Kuehn "These limitations aside, this study is the first systematic evaluation of the impact of participating in a statewide private school choice program on college enrollment and degree attainment. The positive effects are noteworthy in light of evidence …" 1stness The Effects of Statewide Private School Choice on College Enrollment and Graduation Evidence from the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program, p. 27 Urban Institute, Washington, DC (September 2017) "This report was funded by the Bill and Susan Oberndorf Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, the Robertson Foundation, Kate and Bill Duhamel, the Foundation for Excellence in Education, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation." https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93471/the_effects_of_statewide_private_school_choice_on_college_enrollment_and_graduation_0.pdf
11 Matthew M. Chingos Daniel Kuehn "The findings are also notable in light of recent evidence that participating in a statewide private school choice program reduced student achievement (as measured by state tests) in Indiana, Louisiana, and Ohio. The lack of rigorous test
score evidence
 on the FTC program limits our ability to speculate ..."
Denigrating The Effects of Statewide Private School Choice on College Enrollment and Graduation Evidence from the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program, p. 27 Urban Institute, Washington, DC (September 2017) "This report was funded by the Bill and Susan Oberndorf Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, the Robertson Foundation, Kate and Bill Duhamel, the Foundation for Excellence in Education, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation." https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93471/the_effects_of_statewide_private_school_choice_on_college_enrollment_and_graduation_0.pdf
12 Matthew M. Chingos Kristin Blagg "Concerns about potential inequities in the availability of different schools to different families, based in large part on geography, are plausible but have not been subject to systematic empirical analysis. In this report, we begin to fill this gap by using..." 1stness Who could benefit from school choice? Mapping access to public and private schools Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (March 31, 2017) (5) Brookings Institution funders & Laura and John Arnold Foundation, USA Funds https://www.brookings.edu/research/who-could-benefit-from-school-choice-mapping-access-to-public-and-private-schools/
13 Matthew M. Chingos   "Private, non-profit colleges enroll 3.4 million full-time equivalent students, or 30 percent of all U.S. students attending four-year institutions. But they receive comparatively little attention relative to public colleges and the for-profit sector." Dismissive Don’t forget private, non-profit colleges Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (February 16, 2017) (5) Brookings Institution funders & Laura and John Arnold Foundation, USA Funds https://www.brookings.edu/research/dont-forget-private-non-profit-colleges/
14 Matthew M. Chingos   "But private, non-profit colleges receive comparatively little attention, despite the fact that these institutions enroll a substantial share of students at four-year colleges: 3.4 million full-time equivalent students, or 30 percent of all four-year enrollment (compared to 61 percent at public colleges and 9 percent at for-profits)." Dismissive Don’t forget private, non-profit colleges Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (February 16, 2017) (5) Brookings Institution funders & Laura and John Arnold Foundation, USA Funds https://www.brookings.edu/research/dont-forget-private-non-profit-colleges/
15 Matthew M. Chingos   "This report provides new evidence on which groups of students are likely to benefit the most from a policy that eliminates tuition and fees at public colleges and universities. This analysis is meant as a starting point for considering the potential implications of making college free...." 1stness Who would benefit most from free college?, p.1 Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (April 21, 2016) (5) Brookings Institution funders & Laura and John Arnold Foundation, USA Funds http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2016/04/21-who-would-benefit-most-from-free-college-chingos/download-the-paper.pdf
16 Matthew M. Chingos   "Not all analyses of NAEP scores ignore the role of student demographics in test-score performance, but what is missing from this discussion is a systematic framework for assessing how much student achievement varies across observationally similar states and the extent to which changes in state performance on NAEP are accounted for by changes in the demographics of the state (Loveless 2011)." Dismissive Breaking the curve: Promises and pitfalls of using NAEP data to assess the state role in student achievement, p.2 Urban Institute, Washington, DC (October, 2015) (3) Urban Institute's funders http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000484-Breaking-the-Curve-Promises-and-Pitfalls-of-Using-NAEP-Data-to-Assess-the-State-Role-in-Student-Achievement.pdf
17 Matthew M. Chingos   "This report begins to fill this gap with a detailed analysis of the most recent (2013) NAEP data available and of changes over the previous decade (2003–13)." 1stness Breaking the curve: Promises and pitfalls of using NAEP data to assess the state role in student achievement, p.2 Urban Institute, Washington, DC (October, 2015) (3) Urban Institute's funders http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000484-Breaking-the-Curve-Promises-and-Pitfalls-of-Using-NAEP-Data-to-Assess-the-State-Role-in-Student-Achievement.pdf
18 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst, Michael R. Gallaher "School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature…" 1stness School Districts and Student Achievement, abstract Education Finance and Policy   https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/EDFP_a_00167
19 Matthew M. Chingos Paul E. Peterson "We provide the first experimental estimates of the long-term impacts of a voucher to attend private school" 1stness Experimentally Estimated Impacts of School Vouchers on College Enrollment and Degree Attainment, p.1 Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 15-01 William E. Simon Foundation and Searle Freedom Trust  https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG15_01_Chingos_Peterson.pdf
20 Matthew M. Chingos Paul E. Peterson "The observation, though obvious, helps explain the paucity of experimentally generated estimates of long-term impacts of K-12 education interventions in the United States."  Dismissive Experimentally Estimated Impacts of School Vouchers on College Enrollment and Degree Attainment, p.2 Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 15-01 William E. Simon Foundation and Searle Freedom Trust  https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG15_01_Chingos_Peterson.pdf
21 Grover J. "Russ" Whitehurst Matthew M. Chingos, Katherine M. Lindquist "In the last decade, researchers have used student achievement data to quantify teacher performance and thereby measure differences in teacher quality." Dismissive Getting classroom observations right Education Next, Winter 2015, Vol. 15, No. 1 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/getting-classroom-observations-right/
22 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst, Katharine M. Lindquist "Research emerging over the past decade has provided strong evidence of the substantial effects that teachers have on their students’ achievement. More recent findings suggest that principals also have meaningful, albeit smaller, effects on student achievement."  Dismissive School superintendents: Vital or irrelevant?, 2014, p.1 Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (September 2014) (1) Brookings Institution funders  
23 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst, Katharine M. Lindquist "However, there is almost no quantitative research that addresses the impact of superintendents on student achievement. This report provides some of the first empirical evidence on the topic." 1stness School superintendents: Vital or irrelevant?, 2014, p.1 Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (September 2014) (1) Brookings Institution funders  
24 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst, Katharine M. Lindquist "Superintendents may well be as important to student achievement as the popular perception, their portrayal in the media, and their salaries suggest, but there is almost no quantitative research that addresses their impact. Existing research consists largely of journalistic case studies that tell the story of superintendents who are thought to be successful, and analyses of survey data that attempt to identify characteristics of effective district leadership." Dismissive, Denigrating School superintendents: Vital or irrelevant?, 2014, p.2 Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (September 2014) (1) Brookings Institution funders  
25 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst, Katharine M. Lindquist "Research made possible in the last decade by the creation of state longitudinal education databases and increases in computing power has led to strong evidence of substantial teacher effects on their students’ achievement. A more recent body of research suggests that principals have meaningful effects too, although they are more difficult to measure." Dismissive School superintendents: Vital or irrelevant?, 2014, p.2 Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (September 2014) (1) Brookings Institution funders  
26 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst, Katharine M. Lindquist "We are aware of no existing research that similarly systematically examines the impact of superintendents on student achievement." Dismissive School superintendents: Vital or irrelevant?, 2014, p.2 Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (September 2014) (1) Brookings Institution funders  
27 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst, Katharine M. Lindquist "The methods we deploy to address all except the first, purely descriptive, question are capable of reducing the substantial zone of empirical uncertainty around these previously unexplored questions. However, our methods do not support strong causal conclusions because they depend on statistical controls that are only as good as the data available to us." Dismissive School superintendents: Vital or irrelevant?, 2014, p.4 Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (September 2014) (1) Brookings Institution funders  
28 Matthew M. Chingos Elizabeth J. Akers "Earlier this year, we released a report aimed at injecting some much-needed evidence into what has become an often-hysterical public debate about student loan debt." Denigrating Student loan update: A first look at the 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (September 2014) (1) Brookings Institution funders  
29 Ulrich Boser Matthew Chingos, Chelsea Straus "... for too long, researchers, academics, and other education reformers have simply not focused on curriculum and its associated effectiveness. The most recent major study to take a national in-depth look at the policy issues surrounding text books and curriculum, for instance, was published in 2004." [The "most recent major study" is identified as a Fordham Institute report.] Dismissive The Hidden Value of Curriculum Reform: Do States and Districts Receive the Most Bang for Their Curriculum Buck?, p.4 Center for American Progress, October, 2014 (4) Center for American Progress funders https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/06111518/CurriculumMatters-report.pdf
30 Ulrich Boser Matthew Chingos, Chelsea Straus "...most curricula have not been subject to rigorous impact evaluations, and data do not exist on the  instructional products used in the vast majority of states. Some experts have called for data collection efforts that will enable more effectiveness studies so that states and districts can make better informed decisions." Dismissive, Denigrating The Hidden Value of Curriculum Reform: Do States and Districts Receive the Most Bang for Their Curriculum Buck?, p.4 Center for American Progress, October, 2014 (4) Center for American Progress funders https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/06111518/CurriculumMatters-report.pdf
31 Matthew M. Chingos William G. Bowen, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "Online instruction is quickly gaining in importance in U.S. higher education, but little rigorous evidence exists as to its effect on student learning."  Denigrating Interactive learning online at public universities: Evidence from a six-campus randomized trial, Abstract Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 33(1): 94–111 (2014)    
32 Matthew M. Chingos William G. Bowen, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "The rapid growth in the adoption of online learning has been accompanied by an unfortunate lack of rigorous efforts to evaluate these new instructional models…" Denigrating Interactive learning online at public universities: Evidence from a six-campus randomized trial, p.3 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 33(1): 94–111 (2014)    
33 Matthew M. Chingos William G. Bowen, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "There have been literally thousands of studies of “online learning,” but the vast majority do not meet minimal standards of evidence (U.S. Department of Education, 2010) and only a handful involve semester-long courses in higher education (Jaggars and Bailey, 2010)."  Denigrating Interactive learning online at public universities: Evidence from a six-campus randomized trial, p.3 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 33(1): 94–111 (2014)    
34 Matthew M. Chingos William G. Bowen, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "There have been literally thousands of studies of “online learning,” but the vast majority do not meet minimal standards of evidence (U.S. Department of Education, 2010) and only a handful involve semester-long courses in higher education (Jaggars and Bailey, 2010)."  Denigrating Interactive learning online at public universities: Evidence from a six-campus randomized trial, p.4 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 33(1): 94–111 (2014)    
35 Matthew M. Chingos William G. Bowen, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "An important exception is Figlio, Rush, and Yin’s (Forthcoming) randomized experiment…" Dismissive Interactive learning online at public universities: Evidence from a six-campus randomized trial, p.4 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 33(1): 94–111 (2014)    
36 Matthew M. Chingos William G. Bowen, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "This study fills a significant gap in the literature about the relative effectiveness of different learning formats by providing the first evidence from randomized experiments of hybrid instruction conducted at a significant scale across multiple public university campuses." Dismissive Interactive learning online at public universities: Evidence from a six-campus randomized trial, p.5 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 33(1): 94–111 (2014)    
37 Matthew M. Chingos William G. Bowen, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "This study fills a significant gap in the literature about the relative effectiveness of different learning formats by providing the first evidence from randomized experiments of hybrid instruction conducted at a significant scale across multiple public university campuses." 1stness Interactive learning online at public universities: Evidence from a six-campus randomized trial, p.5 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 33(1): 94–111 (2014)    
38 Matthew M. Chingos William G. Bowen, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "Given the pressing need for institutions to use limited resources as effectively as possible, the research reported here is concerned with educational costs as well, which have also received limited attention in prior research related to the effectiveness of online instruction." Dismissive Interactive learning online at public universities: Evidence from a six-campus randomized trial, p.5 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 33(1): 94–111 (2014)   http://www.mattchingos.com/ILO_prepub.pdf
39 Matthew M. Chingos Guido Schwerdt "However, there is no prior credible evidence on the quality of virtual courses compared to in-person courses in U.S. secondary education." Denigrating Virtual Schooling and Student Learning: Evidence from the Florida Virtual School, Abstract Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-02 (2) PEPG funders http://docplayer.net/1538260-Virtual-schooling-and-student-learning-evidence-from-the-florida-virtual-school.html
40 Matthew M. Chingos Guido Schwerdt "This research says little, however, about the potential impact of virtual schooling on student outcomes." Dismissive Virtual Schooling and Student Learning: Evidence from the Florida Virtual School, p.2 Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-02 (2) PEPG funders http://docplayer.net/1538260-Virtual-schooling-and-student-learning-evidence-from-the-florida-virtual-school.html
41 Matthew M. Chingos Guido Schwerdt "There is no existing high-quality research on the impact of fully online high school courses on student achievement in the U.S. This likely is due in large part to the fact that measuring the impact of virtual education is rife with methodological challenges." Denigrating Virtual Schooling and Student Learning: Evidence from the Florida Virtual School, p.4 Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-02 (2) PEPG funders http://docplayer.net/1538260-Virtual-schooling-and-student-learning-evidence-from-the-florida-virtual-school.html
42 Matthew M. Chingos Martin R. West "Although long ignored by education policy analysts, the structure of teacher retirement benefits has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years." Dismissive Which Teachers Choose a Defined Contribution Pension Plan? Evidence from the Florida Retirement System, p.2 Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance (2) PEPG funders & Laura and John Arnold Foundation and the Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG13_01_West.pdf
43 Matthew M. Chingos Paul E. Peterson "Few experimental evaluations have estimated the long-term impacts of interventions taking place during the regular years of schooling." Dismissive The impact of school vouchers on college enrollment Education Next, SUMMER 2013 / VOL. 13, NO. 3 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-impact-of-school-vouchers-on-college-enrollment/
44 Matthew M. Chingos Paul E. Peterson "The scarcity of experimental studies of long-term outcomes is especially true when it comes to school voucher research." Dismissive The impact of school vouchers on college enrollment Education Next, SUMMER 2013 / VOL. 13, NO. 3 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-impact-of-school-vouchers-on-college-enrollment/
45 William G. Bowen Matthew M. Chingos, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "Despite the apparent potential of online learning to deliver high-quality instruction at reduced costs, there is very little rigorous evidence on learning outcomes for students receiving instruction online." Denigrating Online learning in higher education: Randomized trial compares hybrid learning to traditional course Education Next, Spring 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 2 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/online-learning-in-higher-education/
46 William G. Bowen Matthew M. Chingos, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "Very few studies look at the use of online learning for large introductory courses at major public universities, for example, where the great majority of undergraduate students pursue either associate or baccalaureate degrees." Dismissive Online learning in higher education: Randomized trial compares hybrid learning to traditional course Education Next, Spring 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 2 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/online-learning-in-higher-education/
47 Matthew M. Chingos Paul Peterson "Providing the first experimental estimate of the long-term impacts of an offer of a private-school voucher to low-income families…" 1stness Experimentally Estimated Impacts of a School Choice Intervention on Long-term Educational Outcomes, abstract      
48 Matthew M. Chingos   "We don't know all that much about how much the current assessment systems cost, much less about how much these new systems are going to cost." Dismissive "Standardized Testing and the Common Core" Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (November 29, 2012) (1) Brookings Institution funders & Lumina Foundation  
49 Matthew M. Chingos   "Unfortunately, there is little comprehensive up-to-date information on the costs of assessment systems currently in place throughout the country. This report seeks to fill this void by providing the most current, comprehensive evidence on state-level cost of assessment systems, based on new data gathered from state contracts with testing vendors.” Denigrating Strength in Numbers: State Spending on K-12 Assessment Systems, p.1 Brookings Institution. Washington, DC.  (November, 2012) (1) Brookings Institution funders & Lumina Foundation http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/11/29-cost-of-assessment-chingos/11_assessment_chingos_final_new.pdf
50 Matthew M. Chingos   “[Other] Estimates of these costs are based primarily on assumptions and guesswork…" Denigrating Strength in Numbers: State Spending on K-12 Assessment Systems, p.4 Brookings Institution. Washington, DC.  (November, 2012) (1) Brookings Institution funders & Lumina Foundation http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/11/29-cost-of-assessment-chingos/11_assessment_chingos_final_new.pdf
51 Matthew M. Chingos   "The most comprehensive nationwide data were collected about a decade ago, in separate investigations by Caroline Hoxby and the Pew Center on the States." Dismissive Strength in Numbers: State Spending on K-12 Assessment Systems, p.4 Brookings Institution. Washington, DC.  (November, 2012) (1) Brookings Institution funders & Lumina Foundation http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/11/29-cost-of-assessment-chingos/11_assessment_chingos_final_new.pdf
52 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst "Evidence shows that instructional materials have large effects on student learning. However, little research exists on the effectiveness of most instructional materials, and very little systematic information has been collected on which materials are being used in which schools." Dismissive Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core, p.1 Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, April 2012 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/4/10%20curriculum%20chingos%20whitehurst/0410_curriculum_chingos_whitehurst.pdf
53 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst "Administrators are prevented from making better choices of instructional materials by the lack of evidence on the effectiveness of the materials currently in use." Dismissive Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core, p.1 Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, April 2012 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/4/10%20curriculum%20chingos%20whitehurst/0410_curriculum_chingos_whitehurst.pdf
54 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst "This scandalous lack of information…" Dismissive Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core, p.1 Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, April 2012 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/4/10%20curriculum%20chingos%20whitehurst/0410_curriculum_chingos_whitehurst.pdf
55 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst “For example, the vast majority of elementary school mathematics curricula examined by the Institute of Education Sciences What Works Clearinghouse either have no studies of their effectiveness or have no studies that meet reasonable standards of evidence.”  Dismissive Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core, p.1 Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, April 2012 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/4/10%20curriculum%20chingos%20whitehurst/0410_curriculum_chingos_whitehurst.pdf
56 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst “The final limitation is that most existing studies of the effectiveness of instructional materials are carried out with small samples of convenience and ill-defined comparison conditions that compromise the usefulness of the results for individuals charged with choosing instructional materials.”  Denigrating Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core, p.6 Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, April 2012 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/4/10%20curriculum%20chingos%20whitehurst/0410_curriculum_chingos_whitehurst.pdf
57 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst “With such data we could begin to look for patterns that are associated with higher levels of student achievement, and we could fill some of the gaps and lessen some of the uncertainties that are associated with the existing body of studies of instructional materials.”  Dismissive Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core, pp.6-7 Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, April 2012 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/4/10%20curriculum%20chingos%20whitehurst/0410_curriculum_chingos_whitehurst.pdf
58 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst “The opening quote from Lee J. Cronbach indicates that we didn’t know what instructional materials were in use in the 1950s. It is more than a half-century later and we still don’t know.  Dismissive Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core, p.8 Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, April 2012 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/4/10%20curriculum%20chingos%20whitehurst/0410_curriculum_chingos_whitehurst.pdf
59 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst “The only existing study that links student achievement data to instructional materials used across an entire state is Rachana Bhatt and Cory Koedel’s analysis of data from Indiana." Dismissive Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core, p.21 Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, April 2012 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/4/10%20curriculum%20chingos%20whitehurst/0410_curriculum_chingos_whitehurst.pdf
60 Matthew M. Chingos Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst “Given the current dearth of information on instructional materials in use, new data is likely to encourage new research in this area.”  Dismissive Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core, p.21 Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, April 2012 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2012/4/10%20curriculum%20chingos%20whitehurst/0410_curriculum_chingos_whitehurst.pdf
61 Matthew M. Chingos Martin R. West “[T]there is little direct evidence that administrators’ ability to recognize teacher effectiveness influences their personnel decisions.” p. 2 Dismissive Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness? Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-21), Dec. 2010  (2) PEPG funders http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-21_chingos_west.pdf
62 Matthew M. Chingos Martin R. West Evidence on principal effects on student achievement is limited. . . .” p. 2 Dismissive Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness? Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-21), Dec. 2010  (2) PEPG funders http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-21_chingos_west.pdf
63 Matthew M. Chingos Martin R. West “[T]he coefficients on the control variables (reported in Appendix Table 2) also provide what is to our knowledge the first evidence from a statewide database on the correlates of entry into positions of school leadership.” p. 17 1stness Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness? Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-21), Dec. 2010  (2) PEPG funders http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-21_chingos_west.pdf
64 Matthew M. Chingos Martin R. West “The results presented above represent the first systematic evidence on the relationship between teacher effectiveness and job transitions within public school districts.” p. 22 1stness Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness? Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-21), Dec. 2010  (2) PEPG funders http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-21_chingos_west.pdf
65 Matthew M. Chingos   ”Although there are reasons to expect that state governments may well improve student achievement by providing resources that must be spent on a specific policy such as CSR, there is little empirical evidence on this question.” p. 1 Dismissive The Impact of a Universal Class-Size Reduction Policy: Evidence from Florida’s Statewide Mandate∗ Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series  Program (PEPG 10-03), last revised: August 2010 (2) PEPG funders http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-03_Chingos.pdf
66 Matthew M. Chingos   “Thus, there is very little evidence on the overall effects of large-scale CSR policies and essentially no evidence on the effect of CSR as compared to equivalent additional resources.” p. 3 Dismissive The Impact of a Universal Class-Size Reduction Policy: Evidence from Florida’s Statewide Mandate∗ Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series  Program (PEPG 10-03), last revised: August 2010 (2) PEPG funders http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-03_Chingos.pdf
67 Matthew M. Chingos   “The emerging consensus depends upon a limited number of studies, however, so it is worth continuing to scrutinize available information to see whether findings can be replicated as well as to explore certain lacunae in the literature.” pp. 2-3 Dismissive It’s Easier to Pick a Good Teacher than to Train One: Familiar and New Results on the Correlates of Teacher Effectiveness  Paper prepared for a symposium sponsored by the Economics of Education Review, December 10, 2010   http://hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/2010-22_PEPG_Chingos_Peterson.pdf
68 Matthew M. Chingos   “[M]ost prior studies of pre-service training, for example, have relied upon crude indicators of the type of training a teacher has received. . . .” p.3 Denigrating It’s Easier to Pick a Good Teacher than to Train One: Familiar and New Results on the Correlates of Teacher Effectiveness  Paper prepared for a symposium sponsored by the Economics of Education Review, December 10, 2010   http://hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/2010-22_PEPG_Chingos_Peterson.pdf
69 Matthew M. Chingos   Prior estimations of on-the-job training (years of experience) also suffer from certain limitations. . . . In short, the effects of on-the-job training over the teaching life cycle have yet to be precisely estimated.” p. 3 Denigrating It’s Easier to Pick a Good Teacher than to Train One: Familiar and New Results on the Correlates of Teacher Effectiveness  Paper prepared for a symposium sponsored by the Economics of Education Review, December 10, 2010   http://hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/2010-22_PEPG_Chingos_Peterson.pdf
70 Matthew M. Chingos   “Prior econometric research has generally failed to detect positive impacts of pre-service teacher preparation programs on student learning.” p. 5 Dismissive It’s Easier to Pick a Good Teacher than to Train One: Familiar and New Results on the Correlates of Teacher Effectiveness  Paper prepared for a symposium sponsored by the Economics of Education Review, December 10, 2010   http://hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/2010-22_PEPG_Chingos_Peterson.pdf
71 Matthew M. Chingos   In short, there is no state-of-the-art, statewide study of the relative effectiveness of specific university teacher preparation programs.” Denigrating It’s Easier to Pick a Good Teacher than to Train One: Familiar and New Results on the Correlates of Teacher Effectiveness  Paper prepared for a symposium sponsored by the Economics of Education Review, December 10, 2010   http://hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/2010-22_PEPG_Chingos_Peterson.pdf
72 Matthew M. Chingos   “Despite the array of studies that have estimated the effectiveness returns for teachers to on-the-job training, certain avenues have not been fully explored. No previous study has detected a point at which the returns to experience turn downward, a point of some policy interest since teacher salary schedules generally reward teachers for additional year of experience.” p. 9 Dismissive It’s Easier to Pick a Good Teacher than to Train One: Familiar and New Results on the Correlates of Teacher Effectiveness  Paper prepared for a symposium sponsored by the Economics of Education Review, December 10, 2010   http://hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/2010-22_PEPG_Chingos_Peterson.pdf
73 Matthew M. Chingos   “[M]ost studies do not estimate the impact of the acquisition of an advanced degree by comparing individual teacher performances before and after the year the degree was acquired.” p. 11 Denigrating It’s Easier to Pick a Good Teacher than to Train One: Familiar and New Results on the Correlates of Teacher Effectiveness  Paper prepared for a symposium sponsored by the Economics of Education Review, December 10, 2010   http://hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/2010-22_PEPG_Chingos_Peterson.pdf
74 Matthew M. Chingos Martin R. West "A growing body of research using administrative datasets to estimate the impact of individual teachers on student achievement has documented the existence of wide variation in the effectiveness of teachers employed by American school districts (see, e.g., Nye et al. 2004, Rockoff 2004, Rivkin et al. 2005)." Dismissive Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness?  Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-21), Dec. 2010  (2) PEPG funders https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-21_chingos_west.pdf
75 Matthew M. Chingos Martin R. West "A growing body of research using administrative datasets to estimate the impact of individual teachers on student achievement has documented the existence of wide variation in the effectiveness of teachers employed by American school districts (see, e.g., Nye et al. 2004, Rockoff 2004, Rivkin et al. 2005)." Dismissive Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness?  Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-21), Dec. 2010  (2) PEPG funders https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-21_chingos_west.pdf
76 Matthew M. Chingos Michael Henderson, Martin R. West "The evidence on these questions available to date comes from small-scale studies of specific school districts, making it difficult to reach general conclusions about the degree to which parentsand the public at large are well informed about the performance of local schools. We are now able to supplement that research with data from a nationally representative survey of parents and other adults conducted in 2009 under the auspices of Education Next and the Program on Education Policy and Governance (PEPG) at Harvard University." Dismissive, Denigrating Grading Schools: Can citizens tell a good school when they see one? Education Next, Fall 2010, p.61 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute  
77 Matthew M. Chingos Michael Henderson, Martin R. West "[Our] findings represent the first systematic evidence that Americans’ perception of the quality of their local public schools refle publicly available information about the academic achievement of the students who attend them." 1stness Grading Schools: Can citizens tell a good school when they see one? Education Next, Fall 2010, p.67 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute  
78 Matthew M. Chingos Michael Henderson, Martin R. West "Conventional models of democratic accountability hinge on citizens’ ability to evaluate government performance accurately, yet there is little evidence  on  the  degree  to  which  citizen  perceptions  of  the  quality  of  government  services  correspond  to  actual  service  quality." Dismissive Citizen Perceptions of Government Service Quality: Evidence from Public Schools, Abstract Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-16) (2) PEPG funders https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-16_Chingos-Henderson-West.pdf
79 Matthew M. Chingos Michael Henderson, Martin R. West "Yet there is little direct evidence on the degree to which citizen perceptions of the quality of government services correspond to actual service quality, especially in the context of services provided by local governments. ...The lack of evidence on these questions..." Dismissive Citizen Perceptions of Government Service Quality: Evidence from Public Schools, p.1 Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-16) (2) PEPG funders https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-16_Chingos-Henderson-West.pdf
80 Matthew M. Chingos Martin R. West “There is a substantial literature on the correlates of teacher retention but far less research on the link between retention and effectiveness. Indeed, to our knowledge, only three studies have examined the relationship between mobility and attrition patterns and teacher quality using direct measures of teachers’ classroom effectiveness. pp. 1-2 Dismissive Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida Chapter 11 in Matthew G. Springer, ed., Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K-12 Education, Brookings Institution Press, 2009 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.mattchingos.com/West-Chingos_prepub.pdf
81 Matthew M. Chingos Martin R. West “This chapter, which presents a descriptive analysis of the early career paths of new elementary school teachers in the state of Florida from 2001–02 to 2005–06, extends this emerging line of research in several ways.” p.2 1stness Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida Chapter 11 in Matthew G. Springer, ed., Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K-12 Education, Brookings Institution Press, 2009 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.mattchingos.com/West-Chingos_prepub.pdf
82 Matthew M. Chingos Martin R. West “While much more research is needed on the extent to which teachers respond to the incentives created by such policies, combining the two approaches—for example, by offering larger performance incentives in hard-to-staff schools—may represent a promising approach to improving both overall teacher quality and the allocation of the most effective teachers across schools.” p.19 Dismissive Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida Chapter 11 in Matthew G. Springer, ed., Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K-12 Education, Brookings Institution Press, 2009 (1) Brookings Institution funders http://www.mattchingos.com/West-Chingos_prepub.pdf
                 
      Author cites (and accepts without checking) someone elses dismissive review          
      Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work          
      Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.          
(1) Brookings funders [https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/2018-annual-report.pdf] (just those giving more than $10,000 in 2018 are included) $2,000,000 and Above:  Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation The Hutchins Family Foundation Philip Knight Embassy of the State of Qatar David M. Rubenstein $1,000,000–$1,999,999 Laura and John Arnold Foundation BHP Foundation Robert Bosch Stiftung The William and Flora HewlettFoundation The Kresge Foundation The John D. & Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation Government of Norway Alfred P. Sloan Foundation State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company University of Nevada, Las Vegas $500,000–$999,999 Anonymous Ben S. Bernanke Richard C. Blum and the Honorable Dianne Feinstein Annie E. Casey Foundation Steve and Roberta Denning Ford Foundation Robert Wood Johnson Foundation JPMorgan Chase & Co. LEGO Foundation Liberty Mutual Group National Institutes of Health Porticus Cheryl and Haim Saban Leonard D. Schaeffer John Hazen White, Jr. Tracy R. Wolstencroft $250,000–$499,999 Anonymous (3) Altman/Kazickas Foundation Laura and John Arnold Foundation Australian Government, Departmentof Foreign Affairs & Trade Bank of America Daniel Berger Brevan Howard Carnegie Corporation of New York Betsy Z. Cohen Howard Cox Democracy Fund Government of Denmark Exxon Mobil Corporation Google, Inc. Andrew Gundlach, Anna-Maria andStephen Kellen Foundation HCA Healthcare The Jenesis Group Decision Support Center, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia† Charles Koch Foundation The Henry Luce Foundation Microsoft Corporation Morgan Stanley New Venture Fund Northrup Grumman Corporation Rio Tinto The Rockefeller Foundation Searle Freedom Trust The Stockholm Chamber of Commerce Surdna Foundation Taipei Economic and CulturalRepresentative Office in theUnited States Tides Center The Andrew H. and Ann R. Tisch Foundation Turkish Industry and Business Assn. Antoine van Agtmael, Sunrise Foundation The Walton Family Foundation Chi Zhang $100,000–$249,999 Anonymous (5) Robert John Abernethy Paul Achleitner and Deutsche Bank Ahearn Family Foundation Allen & Company LLC American Chemistry Council Arconic Foundation Banco de Sabadell S.A. Barrick Gold Corporation Jane and Alan Batkin Hakeem Belo-Osagie BlackRock Financial Management, Inc. Ambassador Paul L. Cejas Central Indiana Corporate Partnership and BioCrossroads Anla Cheng Chevron Daimler Corporation The Davis Foundation Paul Desmarais, Jr. Haluk Dinćer Jian Ding Hanzade Dog ̆ an Boyner, Dog ̆ an Group Cheryl Cohen Effron and Blair W. Effron Equinor Facebook Alfonso Fanjul Fidelity Investments David and Marianna Fisher Genentech - A Member of The Roche Group Mark T. Gallogly and Elizabeth B. Strickler The George Gund Foundation The Heinz Endowments Antti Herlin, KONE Corporation Roger Hertog Hewlett-Packard Company Pete Higgins Henry L. Hillman Foundation Intesa Sanpaolo Jacobs Foundation Gail and Benjamin Jacobs Kenneth M. Jacobs Japan Bank for International Cooperation John Templeton Foundation Hosein Khajeh-Hosseiny, PhD Korea Development Institute The Korea Foundation Lenovo Group Limited Andrónico Luksic Lili Lynton Howard Marks Mars, Incorporated The McKnight Foundation Mercyhurst University Eric M. Mindich Aditya Mittal The Morningstar Foundation Charles Stewart Mott Foundation Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, America National Center for the Middle Market National Science Foundation Alexander Navab Omidyar Network Open Society Foundations Oregon Department of Transportation PepsiCo Pritzker Traubert Family Foundation Repsol Foundation Brian C. Rogers Robert E. Rubin Schlosstein-Hartley Family Foundation Eric E. Schmidt Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association Sequoia Capital China Advisors Limited Shell Arne and Ruth Sorenson Ramez Sousou Robert Stewart Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs Tang Xiaodan John L. Thornton Ercument Tokat Total S.A. U.S. Department of the Treasury Volvo Research and Educational Foundations David B. and Lynne Weinberg Jiyi Weng John O. Wynne Ezra K. Zilkha $50,000–$99,999 Anonymous Accton Technology Corporation All Nippon Airways Co., Ltd. Amazon.com American Institutes for Research Association of Equipment Manufacturers AT&T Rahul Bajaj Rex J. Bates BP plc Rosenberg Institute of Global Finance at Brandeis International Business School Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation Laurel Britton The Andrea and Charles Bronfman Philanthropies W. Edmund Clark The Clearing House Association ClimateWorks Foundation Abby Joseph Cohen Jonathan E. Colby Art Collins Comcast NBCUniversal Cornerstone Macro The Crown Family Alan and Lauren Dachs Eberstadt Kuffner Fund Elevate Credit, Inc. The Lee and Juliet Folger Fund Bart Friedman and Wendy A. Stein FutureWei Technologies, Inc. Benjamin D. Harburg Phil Harvey William A. Haseltine I Squared Capital Insurance Information Institute Intel Corporation Embassy of Japan Jefferies, LLC Tom Kaplan, Wolfgang Puck Fine Dining Group Cash, Contracts, and In-Kind Contributions Sheryl and Chip Kaye Samer Khoury Tawfic Khoury Amy Liu John G. Macfarlane III John Manley Medtronic, Inc. Cathy E. Minehan The Leo Model Foundation Ambrose Monell Foundation Mario M. Morino Nihon Keizai Shimbun-sya (NIKKEI) Noble Energy Nomura Foundation Norges Bank Investment Management Palantir Technologies The Peter G. Peterson Foundation Point72 Asset Management John G. Popp Public Health Law Center at Mitchell Hamline School of Law Marian Puig Thomas C. Ramey and Perrin Ireland Joseph L. Rice III Stephen Robert James D. Robinson III Rockefeller Brothers Fund Christopher Rokos Victoria and Roger Sant Robert B. Sheh Dr. Fay L. Shutzer and William A. Shutzer Government of Switzerland Tellurian, Inc. Lynn Thoman and the Leon Lowenstein Foundation UBS AG UN University World Institute for Development Economics Research Department for International Development, United Kingdom United Technologies Corporation University of Chicago University of Toronto The Urban Institute Visa Inc. Alex C. Walker Foundation Marcus Wallenberg, Foundation Asset Management (FAM) Claude Wasserstein Katie Henderson, The Water Research Foundation Beatrice W. and Anthony Welters The Ralph C. Wilson, Jr. Foundation Stephen M. Wolf Daniel H. Yergin and Angela Stent D.B. Zwirn Foundation $25,000–$49,999 Anonymous (2) Aberdeen Standard Investment ACTwireless Actagon AB Airlines for America John R. Allen Eileen A. Aptman Aramco Services Company†† Arnhold Foundation Central Intelligence Agency Charter Communications, Inc. Citi The Civic Council of Greater Kansas City H. Rodgin Cohen The Commonwealth Fund Susan Crown andWilliam C. Kunkler III Cummins Inc. DLI North America (Dai-ichi Life Group) European Recovery Program (ERP), German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy Evercore Partners Embassy of France Barbara H. Franklin Funders’ Network for Smart Growth and Livable Communities, Inc. Garfield Foundation Jeff Gore Teresa Heinz Kerry Hitachi, Ltd. Honda North America, Inc. Indra Inter-American Development Bank The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) The Israel Institute George M. James Japan Air Self Defense Force Japan Economic Foundation The Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership Japan International Cooperation Agency James A. Johnson George Kellner Jeffrey D. Lapin Sara Grootwassink Lewis Linden Trust for Conservation Lockheed Martin Corporation Marine Corps University Marubeni America Corporation The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. Municipality of The Hague Laxman Narasimhan NCTA - The Internet and Television Association Lisa O’Kelly Permanent Secretariat of the Community of Democracies Raytheon Company Marcia Riklis San Diego Regional Economic Development Corporation Katherine Stahl in Honor of Pietro Nivola Krishen Sud Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Temasek Holdings United Airlines, Inc. U.S. Department of the Air Force U.S. Department of the Army U.S. Department of the Navy John Usdan Verizon Communications Washington University in St. Louis The World Bank $10,000–$24,999 Anonymous (2) Aflac Yavuz Ahiska Astra Capital Management WaĎl O. Bayazid Kelvin Beachum, Jr. Linda and Jim Beers Franklin M. Berger David K. Berler The Boeing Company Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Anders Brag The Brodsky Family Foundation California HealthCare Foundation Morris Clarke Corning Incorporated Foundation The Council for the United States and Italy Arthur B. Culvahouse, Jr. The Curtis Family Foundation Davis Polk & Wardwell, LLP Porter Dawson Laura A. DeFelice Deloitte LLP Emsi R.S. Evans Foundation Philip and Diana Faillace Patricia Farman-Farmaian Roger C. Faxon Forum for the Future of Higher Education Mitzi and Cyrus Freidheim David Friend John L. Furth Gardner Grout Foundation Helene Gayle GEICO General Motors Foundation Marilyn and Michael Glosserman Rob Granieri Patrick W. and Sheila Proby Gross Agnes Gund Hellman Foundation Higher Heights ITOCHU International Inc. Joel and Ricki Kanter Cassandra Kelly Brenda R. Kiessling Jackie and Andrew Klaber Lee Klingenstein Robert and Arlene Kogod Korea International Trade Association Ned Lamont Toby Devan Lewis Lumos Foundation USA Bertil P. Lundqvist Marketplace Lending Association John P. McCormick Arjay Miller* Mary Miller Mitsubishi Corporation (Americas) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. Mitsui & Co. (U.S.A.), Inc. Mona Foundation Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Northern Trust NTT Corp. Gordon and Dailey Pattee Mary Carr Patton Dina and George Perry Marc Peters The Honorable Edward A. and Diane L. Powell Purdue Pharma L.P. Israel Roizman Charles Rossotti Jon Rotenstreich Frederic and Susan Rubinstein Ricardo and Leslie Salmon Jonathan Schaffzin Michael L. Schler Shimizu Corporation Stanley S. Shuman Emily and Robert E. Smith Sojitz Corporation of America Esta Eiger Stecher Andrew P. Steffan Sumitomo Corporation of Americas The Nelson S. Talbott Foundation Larry D. Thompson Toshiba America, Inc. Ranvir Trehan Universidad EAFIT, Colombia VOX Global Seymour and Kathleen Weingarten Joan and Harry Weintrob              
(2) Harvard's Program on Education Policy & Governance (PEPG) funders (as of January 2019) [https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/sponsors_affiliates.htm]:  Donors & contributors:     The Achelis & Bodman Foundations     BASIC Fund Scholarship Foundation     Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation     The Annie E. Casey Foundation     Thomas B. Fordham Foundation     Milton & Rose D. Friedman Foundation     Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation     Gordon & Llura Gund Foundation     Kern Family Foundation     Charles Koch Foundation     John M. Olin Foundation, Inc.     Lovett & Ruth Peters Foundation     William E. Simon Foundation     Smart Foundation     The Walton Family Foundation, Inc.  Program affiliates:     Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston     Center for American Political Studies     The Institute for Quantitative Social Science     Thomas B. Fordham Institute     Brookings Institution, Brown Center on Education Policy     Hoover Institution at Stanford University     Alliance for School Choice     Center for Education Reform     Education Leaders Council     Heritage Foundation     Institute for Justice     Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation     Empowering Parents for Informed Choices in Education     Children's Scholarship Fund     Heartland Institute School Reform News     Joint Center for Poverty Research     Black Alliance for Educational Options     Foundation for Excellence in Education       
(3) Urban Institute
(4) [as of January, 2019] Center for American Progress funders [https://www.americanprogress.org/about/c3-our-supporters/] $1,000,000 or more: Anonymous (5); Democracy Forward; Fidelity Charitable Gift Fund; Ford Foundation; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation; The Hutchins Family Foundation; W.K. Kellogg Foundation; Jonathan and Jeannie Lavine Family Fund; Open Society Foundations; Sandler Foundation; TomKat Charitable Trust.  $500,000 to $999,999: Anonymous (2); Carnegie Corporation of New York; Embassy of the United Arab Emirates; Amy P. Goldman Foundation; Joyce Foundation; John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation; National Philanthropic Trust; The David and Lucile Packard Foundation; The Rockefeller Foundation; Siegel Family Endowment; Silicon Valley Community Foundation; Walton Family Foundation. $100,000 to $499,999: Anonymous (4); American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME); Apple Inc.; The Arcus Foundation; Stewart Bainum Jr.; Bloomberg Philanthropies; Paul Boskind; William K. Bowes, Jr. Foundation; The California Endowment; Annie E. Casey Foundation; Consolidated Contractors Company; Quinn Delaney and Wayne Jordan; Blair Effron; Paul & Joanne Egerman Family Charitable Foundation; Dr. Anita Friedman; First Five Years Fund; Foundation for the Greatest Good; Mark Gallogly and Lise Strickler; Gill Foundation; Goldman-Sonnenfeldt Foundation; H&R Block; Hagedorn Foundation; Irving Harris Foundation; Heising-Simons Foundation; HR&A Advisors; The Kendeda Fund; The Kresge Foundation; Lumina Foundation; Mai Family Foundation; Microsoft Corporation; Eric Mindich; New Venture Fund; New York Community Trust; Open Philanthropy Project; Robert W. Roche; Robert E. Rubin; Schlosstein-Hartley Family Foundation; Stephen M. Silberstein Foundation; Stiftung Mercator; Vanguard Charitable Endowment Program; The WhyNot Initiative. $50,000 to $99,999: Anonymous (5); 444S Foundation; Robert Abernethy; American Federation of Teachers (AFT); William and Bonnie Apfelbaum; AT&T; Bank of America; The Bauman Foundation; Blackstone; Campion Foundation; CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield; Coalition for Public Safety; Common Counsel Foundation; Covanta; Embassy of Japan; Marc Fasteau and Anne G. Fredericks; Google; Sanjay Govil; Evelyn & Walter Haas, Jr. Fund; The Nick and Leslie Hanauer Foundation; Fred P. Hochberg and Thomas P. Healy; James Hormel; Infinite Computer Solutions Inc.; Tony James; Johnson Family Foundation; Altman Kazickas Foundation; LaSalle Adams Fund; Dale P. Mathias; Rebecca and Nathan Milikowsky; Ken Miller and Lybess Sweezy; Rockefeller Family Fund; Schwab Charitable Fund; Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States, or TECRO; United Minds for Progress; Henry van Ameringen; Jon F. Vein; Wallace Global Fund; Walmart; Wilburforce Foundation. $5,000 to $49,999: Anonymous (14); A. L. Mailman Family Foundation; Wendy and Jim Abrams; ADARA Charitable Fund; Madeleine K. Albright; The Albright Stonebridge Group; American Association for Justice (AAJ); American Beverage Association; The American Express Company; Greg and Anne Avis; Bank of America Charitable Gift Fund; B.W. Bastian Foundation; Nina Beattie and Michael Eberstadt; Carol and Frank Biondi; Adam Blumenthal; Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, LLP; C.J.L. Charitable Foundation; California Community Foundation; James Capalino; Capricorn Management, LLC; Chan Zuckerberg Initiative; Dana Chasin; Simon Clark; Steven Cohen; David Colden; Combined Federal Campaign; Connecticut Street Foundation; CVS Health; Raj Date; Defenders of Wildlife; Discovery Communications; Eileen Donahoe; East Bay Community Foundation; Charles Leonard Egan; Elmo Foundation; Everytown for Gun Safety Action Fund; Express Scripts; Facebook; Federal Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany; Joseph and Marie Field Foundation; Geoffrey Garin; General Electric; Heinrich Böll Foundation; Ann and Gordon Getty Foundation; Lisa and Douglas Goldman Fund; William Goldman; Joshua Greer; Garrett Gruener and Amy Slater Family Fund; Estate of Vincent Gulisano; Margaret and Shashi Gupta; Craig and Kathryn Hall; Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung North America; Joe Henderson; The Heyday Foundation; Belle Horwitz and Jonathan Weiner; Institute of International Education; Invariant; Joan and Irwin Jacobs; Japan Bank for International Cooperation; Jewish Community Foundation; Michael W. Kempner; Ed Kissam; Lebowitz-Aberly Family Foundation; Lefkofsky Family Foundation; Leonardo DRS; Damon & Heidi Lindelof; Hani Masri; Master Your Card; James Mauch; McLarty Associates; The Herbert McLaughlin Children’s Trust; Al Mottur; Kristin Mugford; The Philip and Tammy Murphy Family Foundation; Nicole Mutchnik; MWW; Shekar Narasimhan; New Silk Route Advisors LP; Joyce Newstat and Susan Lowenberg; NVG LLC; Peter Orszag; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Alan Patricof; Pearson Education; PepsiCo Inc.; Anne Peretz; Peter G. Peterson Foundation; Andrew Pincus; Heather Podesta; Portlight Inclusive Disaster Strategies; The Pritzker Children’s Initiative; Quest Diagnostics; Deepak Raj; Steven Rattner and Maureen White; Robert Raymar; Francene and Charles Rodgers; Marti and Greg Rosenbaum; Laura Ross; Samsung; Parag Saxena; Alan & Susan Lewis Solomont Family Foundation; The Summers/New Family; Temasek; The Travelers Indemnity Company; Trehan Foundation Inc.; Tom and Janet Unterman; Philippe and Katherine Villers; Jeffrey C. Walker; Hope Warschaw; Herbert S. Winokur Jr; Robert Wolf.