HOME:  Dismissive Reviews in Education Policy Research
  Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Funders Link1 Notes
1 Matt Barnum   "But amid the fierce debates, there has been virtually no research on whether the standards were actually accomplishing their goal of improving student learning." Dismissive Nearly a decade later, did the Common Core work? New research offers clues Chalkbeat, April 29, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/04/29/common-core-work-research/ The education policy researchers Barnum talks to have received money from the foundations promoting Common Core. For other evidence, look at the reports, and the research those reports cite, at the few think tanks that rejected Gates Foundation funds, such as the Pioneer Institute. 
2 Matt Barnum citing CALDER report "There’s very little other research on the Common Core. A 2015 Kentucky study showed students who were exposed to the standards made larger gains than students who weren’t." Dismissive Nearly a decade later, did the Common Core work? New research offers clues Chalkbeat, April 29, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/04/29/common-core-work-research/ The education policy researchers Barnum talks to have received money from the foundations promoting Common Core. For other evidence, look at the reports, and the research those reports cite, at the few think tanks that rejected Gates Foundation funds, such as the Pioneer Institute. 
3 Matt Barnum   "One potential response would be to raise the bar to graduate through high school exit exams. But research has shown that this approach has few clear benefits while increasing dropout rates, particularly among black and Hispanic students." Dismissive Across U.S., graduation rates are rising, with little connection to test scores Chalkbeat, January 28, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/01/28/graduation-rates-test-score-disconnect/ "the research" to which he refers is a small, selective part of the research literature on the topic
4 Matt Barnum   "according to a comprehensive study released last week by the RAND Corporation. It appears to be the first randomized trial — the gold standard in social science research — of restorative justice in schools, a practice that has taken hold across the country." 1stness Major new study finds restorative justice led to safer schools, but hurt black students’ test scores Chalkbeat, January 4, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/01/04/the-first-gold-standard-study-of-restorative-justice-is-out-heres-what-it-tells-us/ Authors of the profiled study claimed that theirs was "one of the first;" journalist Barnum claims it to be "the first." Barnum cites a 2016 literature review, which itself: refers to several other randomized controlled trials of the topic funded at the same time by the same source (US DOJ) ( https://nij.gov/funding/awards/pages/awards-list.aspx?solicitationid=3878# ), admits its literature review is not exhaustive (see footnote 14); and, apparently, performed only a web search. Of the literature review's 69 references, one emanates from 1993, another from 1998, and all the rest from after the year 2000, with half from after 2009. 
5 Matt Barnum   "A trio of recent studies were among the first to document that teachers are more effective when they first taught under the supervision of high-quality teacher." 1stness What worked (and didn’t) this year: 10 lessons from education research to take into 2019 Chalkbeat, December 21, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/12/21/education-research-2018/  
6 Matt Barnum   "The annual ritual of state testing in elementary and middle schools often comes within an unwelcome side effect: jittery, stressed-out kids.... Now, a first-of-its-kind study documents some of what’s actually happening to students." 1stness How the stress of state testing might make it harder for some students to show what they know Chalkbeat, December 13, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/12/13/stress-testing-research/  
7 Matt Barnum   "The study appears to be the first to look at this phenomenon specifically." 1stness Students show up to school more often when they see ‘familiar faces,’ new study finds Chalkbeat, November 28, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/11/28/attendance-peers-looping-students-stability-familiar-faces/  
8 Matt Barnum   "Now new research backs up Vazquez’s experience, documenting for perhaps the first time the steep consequences for students after teachers leave a classroom in middle of the school year." 1stness New research shows just how much losing a teacher midyear hurts students Chalkbeat, October 23, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/10/23/teacher-turnover-midyear-hurts-students/  
9 Matt Barnum   "But there’s been little reliable evidence that suspensions are the true cause of poor test scores or dismal graduation rates." Dismissive, Denigrating Suspensions really do hurt students academically, new studies confirm, but maybe less than previously thought. Chalkbeat, August 23, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/08/23/suspensions-really-do-hurt-students-academically-new-studies-confirm-but-maybe-less-than-previously-thought/ As evidence that little previous research exists, Barnum simply cites another author, in an Education Next article, who makes the claim ex cathedra.
10 Matt Barnum   "Now, we’re closer to some answers. Three of four recent studies on the topic provide some of the strongest evidence yet that suspensions do in fact harm students’ academic performance. Dismissive, Denigrating Suspensions really do hurt students academically, new studies confirm, but maybe less than previously thought. Chalkbeat, August 23, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/08/23/suspensions-really-do-hurt-students-academically-new-studies-confirm-but-maybe-less-than-previously-thought/  
11 Matt Barnum   "Do student teachers learn more when they’re mentored by especially effective teachers? The answer may seem obvious, but there’s been little research confirming as much. Until now." 1stness Mentors matter: Good teaching really can be passed down to student teachers, new research finds Chalkbeat, July 16, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/07/16/mentors-matter-good-teaching-really-can-be-passed-down-to-student-teachers-new-research-finds/  
12 Matt Barnum   "As school districts across the country have cut back on suspensions, critics claimed that the changes have led to chaos in the classroom. But there’s been remarkably little hard evidence either for or against that view." Dismissive, Denigrating When Chicago cut down on suspensions, students saw test scores and attendance rise, study finds Chalkbeat, March 13, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/03/13/when-chicago-cut-down-on-suspensions-students-saw-test-scores-and-attendance-rise-study-finds/  
13 Matt Barnum Daniel Koretz [interviewee] Journalist: I take it it’s very hard to quantify this test prep phenomenon, though? Koretz: It is extremely hard, and there’s a big hole in the research in this area. Dismissive Why one Harvard professor calls American schools’ focus on testing a ‘charade’ Chalkbeat, January 19, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/01/19/why-one-harvard-professor-calls-american-schools-focus-on-testing-a-charade/ In fact the test prep, or test coaching, literature is vast and dates back decades, with meta-analyses of the literature dating back at least to the 1970s. There's even a What Works Clearinghouse summary of the (post World Wide Web) college admission test prep research literature:  https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/InterventionReports/wwc_act_sat_100416.pdf . See also: Messick & Jungeblut (1981)  Ellis, Konoske, Wulfeck, & Montague (1982)  DerSimonian and Laird (1983)  Kulik, Bangert-Drowns & Kulik (1984) Fraker (1986/1987) Halpin (1987) Whitla (1988)  Snedecor (1989)  Becker (1990)  Smyth (1990) Moore (1991)  Alderson & Wall (1992)  Powers (1993)  Powers & Rock (1994)  Scholes, Lane (1997)   Allalouf & Ben Shakhar (1998)  Robb & Ercanbrack (1999)  McClain (1999)  Camara (1999, 2001, 2008) Stone & Lane (2000, 2003)  Din & Soldan (2001)  Briggs (2001)  Palmer (2002)  Briggs & Hansen (2004)  Cankoy & Ali Tut (2005)  Crocker (2005)  Allensworth, Correa, & Ponisciak (2008)  Domingue & Briggs (2009) 
14 Matt Barnum Daniel Koretz [interviewee] "There aren’t that many studies, but they’re very consistent. The inflation that does show up is sometimes absolutely massive. Worse, there is growing evidence that that problem is more severe for disadvantaged kids, creating the illusion of improved equity." Dismissive Why one Harvard professor calls American schools’ focus on testing a ‘charade’ Chalkbeat, January 19, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/01/19/why-one-harvard-professor-calls-american-schools-focus-on-testing-a-charade/ In fact the test prep, or test coaching, literature is vast and dates back decades, with meta-analyses of the literature dating back at least to the 1970s. There's even a What Works Clearinghouse summary of the (post World Wide Web) college admission test prep research literature:  https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/InterventionReports/wwc_act_sat_100416.pdf . See also: Messick & Jungeblut (1981)  Ellis, Konoske, Wulfeck, & Montague (1982)  DerSimonian and Laird (1983)  Kulik, Bangert-Drowns & Kulik (1984) Fraker (1986/1987) Halpin (1987) Whitla (1988)  Snedecor (1989)  Becker (1990)  Smyth (1990) Moore (1991)  Alderson & Wall (1992)  Powers (1993)  Powers & Rock (1994)  Scholes, Lane (1997)   Allalouf & Ben Shakhar (1998)  Robb & Ercanbrack (1999)  McClain (1999)  Camara (1999, 2001, 2008) Stone & Lane (2000, 2003)  Din & Soldan (2001)  Briggs (2001)  Palmer (2002)  Briggs & Hansen (2004)  Cankoy & Ali Tut (2005)  Crocker (2005)  Allensworth, Correa, & Ponisciak (2008)  Domingue & Briggs (2009) 
15 Matt Barnum   "This lesson may be the least surprising to policymakers. But as states try to help low-performing schools under the new federal education law, ESSA, they have a thin research base to draw from." Dismissive What we’ve learned: 5 lessons from education research to take into 2018 Chalkbeat, December 22, 2017 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2017/12/22/what-weve-learned-5-lessons-from-education-research-to-take-into-2018/  
16 Matt Barnum   "The study, which uses national data from 2005 to 2015 and was released this week through the National Bureau of Economic Research, appears to be the first to document how frequently teachers move states compared to those in other occupations. 1stness America’s teachers don’t move out of state much. That could be bad for students Chalkbeat, December 13, 2017 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2017/12/13/americas-teachers-dont-move-out-of-state-much-that-could-be-bad-for-students/  
17 Matt Barnum   "Chalkbeat combed through some of the most rigorous academic studies to get the answers." Denigrating Do school vouchers ‘work’? As the debate heats up, here’s what research really says Chalkbeat, July 12, 2017 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2017/07/12/do-school-vouchers-work-as-the-debate-heats-up-heres-what-research-really-says/  
18 Matt Barnum   "The only program that has been rigorously studied, Florida’s tax credit scholarship, ..." Denigrating Do school vouchers ‘work’? As the debate heats up, here’s what research really says Chalkbeat, July 12, 2017 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2017/07/12/do-school-vouchers-work-as-the-debate-heats-up-heres-what-research-really-says/  
19 Matt Barnum   "There is surprisingly little research on the effects of private school choice programs on segregation." Dismissive Do school vouchers ‘work’? As the debate heats up, here’s what research really says Chalkbeat, July 12, 2017 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2017/07/12/do-school-vouchers-work-as-the-debate-heats-up-heres-what-research-really-says/  
20 Matt Barnum   "That also means that research on tax credit programs is scarce." Dismissive To Test or Not to Test: As Tax Credit Scholarships Expand, Questions About Accountability and Outcomes The 74, May 4, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/to-test-or-not-to-test-as-tax-credit-scholarships-expand-questions-about-accountability-and-outcomes/  
21 Matt Barnum Max Eden [interviewee] "Using anecdotal evidence and surveys, critics claim that restricting suspensions may have a deleterious effect on school safety and climate, particularly without support, resources, or broader structural reforms. That’s the argument put forth in a report focusing on New York City by Max Eden, a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute," Denigrating The School Discipline Revolution: How Policy and Rhetoric Outstrip Hard Evidence The 74, May 2, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-school-discipline-revolution-how-policy-and-rhetoric-outstrip-hard-evidence/  
22 Matt Barnum   "Yet there are no firm data showing that this is true." Dismissive The School Discipline Revolution: How Policy and Rhetoric Outstrip Hard Evidence The 74, May 2, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-school-discipline-revolution-how-policy-and-rhetoric-outstrip-hard-evidence/  
23 Matt Barnum   "there are little convincing data showing that suspensions in and of themselves cause these negative outcomes." Dismissive, Denigrating The School Discipline Revolution: How Policy and Rhetoric Outstrip Hard Evidence The 74, May 2, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-school-discipline-revolution-how-policy-and-rhetoric-outstrip-hard-evidence/  
24 Matt Barnum   "Similarly, restorative justice approaches — which emphasize reconciliation of conflict over punishment and are backed by many as a fairer, more effective
alternative — have a thin research base."
Dismissive The School Discipline Revolution: How Policy and Rhetoric Outstrip Hard Evidence The 74, May 2, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-school-discipline-revolution-how-policy-and-rhetoric-outstrip-hard-evidence/  
25 Matt Barnum   "Careful studies are currently in the works regarding the impacts of the school disciplinary changes sweeping the country." Denigrating The School Discipline Revolution: How Policy and Rhetoric Outstrip Hard Evidence The 74, May 2, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-school-discipline-revolution-how-policy-and-rhetoric-outstrip-hard-evidence/  
26 Matt Barnum   "There has also been little systematic research on why certain types of curriculum and textbooks are more effective than others." Dismissive New Studies Suggest Choice of Curriculum and Textbooks Can Make a Big Difference for Students The 74, May 1, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/new-studies-suggest-choice-of-curriculum-and-textbooks-can-make-a-big-difference-for-students/  
27 Matt Barnum Morgan Polikoff [interviewee] "One problem is simply a lack of information, according to Morgan Polikoff, a professor at the University of Southern California and co-author of one of the California studies. 'Very few states keep track of which districts adopt which books,' he said." Dismissive New Studies Suggest Choice of Curriculum and Textbooks Can Make a Big Difference for Students The 74, May 1, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/new-studies-suggest-choice-of-curriculum-and-textbooks-can-make-a-big-difference-for-students/ Because information is not collected at the state level, which would be more convenient for a researcher, does not mean that it does not exist.
28 Matt Barnum David Steiner [interviewee] "'To date, research on the curriculum effect has told us little about what makes a particular curriculum or genre of curriculum especially effective or not,” wrote Steiner." Dismissive New Studies Suggest Choice of Curriculum and Textbooks Can Make a Big Difference for Students The 74, May 1, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/new-studies-suggest-choice-of-curriculum-and-textbooks-can-make-a-big-difference-for-students/  
29 Matt Barnum David Steiner [interviewee] "'The paucity of evidence upon which sound instructional, purchasing, and policy decisions can be made is a matter of deep concern and urgent need,' wrote Steiner." Dismissive New Studies Suggest Choice of Curriculum and Textbooks Can Make a Big Difference for Students The 74, May 1, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/new-studies-suggest-choice-of-curriculum-and-textbooks-can-make-a-big-difference-for-students/  
30 Matt Barnum   "The first-of-its-kind study, which I detail in greater depth here, was conducted by American University’s Constance Lindsay and Seth Gershenson working in tandem with Cassandra Hart of the University of California, Davis, and Nicholas Papageorge of Johns Hopkins University.  1stness 5 Things We Now Know About Teacher Diversity: What Researcher Constance Lindsay Has Found About Race in School The 74, April 10, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/5-things-we-now-know-about-teacher-diversity-what-researcher-constance-lindsay-has-found-about-race-in-school/ "Anna Egalite, a researcher at North Carolina State University who has also found benefits of teacher diversity in her own research, reviewed the study at The 74’s request. She praised the paper — which has not gone through formal peer review — as “interesting” and said she did not “see any obvious biases or glaring issues with the research design.” But, it turns out, Ms. Egalite is hardly independent. She works for [the ed reform establishment] Education Next, and "Anna J. Egalite holds a Ph.D. in Education Policy from the [ed reform establishment] University of Arkansas; she completed her postdoctoral fellowship in the [ed reform establishment] Program on Education Policy and Governance at Harvard University."
31 Matt Barnum Dan Goldhaber, Matt Kraft (interviewees) "Despite the rhetoric, there is little evidence suggesting that testing and evaluation policies have led to across-the-board reductions in teacher retention or job satisfaction. (I asked two researchers — Dan Goldhaber of the University of Washington and Matt Kraft of Brown University — and both agreed there isn’t a great deal of research on the question.)" Dismissive The 74 Fact-Check: Are Teachers Really Burning Out Because of Tougher Tests and Evaluations? The 74, October 12, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-74-fact-check-are-teachers-really-burning-out-due-to-tougher-tests-and-evaluations/  
32 Matt Barnum   "But decades of research now show that exit exams have not really raised standards, and have actually harmed disadvantaged students." Dismissive The Exit Exam Paradox: Did States Raise Standards So High They Then Had to Lower the Bar to Graduate? The 74, June 12, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-exit-exam-paradox-did-states-raise-standards-so-high-they-then-had-to-lower-the-bar-to-graduate/ Exit exams existed long before Barnum claims they did, even in the United States (in New York State and in many school districts. Contrary to Barnum's claims, much evidence has existed for a long time showing that exit exams tend to have beneficial effects on achievement near where the passing scores are set and no or negative effects far away from where the passing scores are set. Most countries with long-established exit exam programs set multiple targets--different curricular streams or different levels of rigor, so that all students may reach a target level relative to them. See, for example, https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Foundation/EffectiveTestingSystem.pdf
33 Matt Barnum   "The argument for exit exams is that they will push students to work harder, and ensure a diploma is not devalued in the job market. Remarkably, considering how quickly the practice spread, there is virtually no evidence that these benefits have come to pass — and a host of research shows negative effects of the policy." Dismissive The Exit Exam Paradox: Did States Raise Standards So High They Then Had to Lower the Bar to Graduate? The 74, June 12, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-exit-exam-paradox-did-states-raise-standards-so-high-they-then-had-to-lower-the-bar-to-graduate/ Exit exams existed long before Barnum claims they did, even in the United States (in New York State and in many school districts. Contrary to Barnum's claims, much evidence has existed for a long time showing that exit exams tend to have beneficial effects on achievement near where the passing scores are set and no or negative effects far away from where the passing scores are set. Most countries with long-established exit exam programs set multiple targets--different curricular streams or different levels of rigor, so that all students may reach a target level relative to them. See, for example, https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Foundation/EffectiveTestingSystem.pdf
34 Matt Barnum Sean Reardon (by email) “There is a general consensus in the research that high school exit exams increase dropout rates, [but] there is little or no evidence that they improve achievement or raise wages of students following high school.”  Dismissive The Exit Exam Paradox: Did States Raise Standards So High They Then Had to Lower the Bar to Graduate? The 74, June 12, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-exit-exam-paradox-did-states-raise-standards-so-high-they-then-had-to-lower-the-bar-to-graduate/ Exit exams existed long before Barnum claims they did, even in the United States (in New York State and in many school districts. Contrary to Barnum's claims, much evidence has existed for a long time showing that exit exams tend to have beneficial effects on achievement near where the passing scores are set and no or negative effects far away from where the passing scores are set. Most countries with long-established exit exam programs set multiple targets--different curricular streams or different levels of rigor, so that all students may reach a target level relative to them. See, for example, https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Foundation/EffectiveTestingSystem.pdf
35 Matt Barnum   "Much less discussion, though, at least among national commentators, has focused on the stakes for students.

It’s clear that high-school exit exams have very high stakes indeed."
Dismissive The Exit Exam Paradox: Did States Raise Standards So High They Then Had to Lower the Bar to Graduate? The 74, June 12, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-exit-exam-paradox-did-states-raise-standards-so-high-they-then-had-to-lower-the-bar-to-graduate/ Aa abundance of research has focused on the effects of high-stakes tests on students. See, for example, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920  Also, most high school exit exams have been targeted to a very low achievement level--8th or 9th grade. Contradicting himself, Barnum mentions 'minimum competency' exams elsewhere in his article."
                   
      Author cites (and accepts without checking) someone elses dismissive review            
      Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work            
                 
                 
      (1) [as of January, 2019] Ann & Hal Logan via The Denver Foundation*; Anna and John J. Sie Foundation*; Anna-Maria and Stephen Kellen Foundation; Awesome Without Borders; Azita Raji and Gary Syman; Ben & Lucy Ana Walton*; Better Education Institute, Inc.; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation;Brett Family Foundation; Brooke Brown via the Carson Foundation*; Buell Foundation; Carnegie Corporation of New York; Carson Foundation; Chan Zuckerberg Initiative; Charles H. Revson Foundation; Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation; Christopher Gabrieli; CME Group; COGEN Co-working; Community Foundation of Greater Memphis; Community Foundation of New Jersey; Democracy Fund; Donnell-Kay Foundation; Doug and Wendy Kreeger; EdChoice; EDU21C Foundation; Elaine Berman; Eli Lilly and Company Foundation, Inc.; Elizabeth Aybar Conti; Elizabeth Haas Edersheim (In Kind); Emma Bloomberg; Ford Foundation; Fry Foundation; Fund for Nonprofit News at The Miami Foundation; Gail Klapper; Gates Family Foundation; GEM Foundation; George T. Cameron Education Foundation; Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation partnership with the Knight Foundation; Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (In Kind);  J.R. Hyde III Family Foundation Donor Advised Fund of the Community Foundation of Greater Memphis;  Jim and Marsha McCormick; Kate Kennedy Reinemund and Jim Kennedy; Ken Hirsh; Kresge Foundation; La Vida Feliz Foundation; Lenfest Community Listening and Engagement Fund; Lilly Endowment Inc.; Maher Foundation; Margulf Foundation; Mark Zurack; Memphis Education Fund; Naomi and Michael Rosenfeld; Overdeck Family Foundation; Debra and Paul Appelbaum; Peter and Carmen L. Buck Foundation; Polk Bros. Foundation; Quinn Family Foundation; Ralph C. Wilson, Jr. Foundation; Richard M. Fairbanks Foundation, Inc.; Rick Smith; Rob Gary and Chris Watney; Rob Gary via the Piton Foundation*; Robert J. Yamartino and Maxine Sclar; Robert R. McCormick Foundation; Rose Community Foundation; Scott Gleason of O’Melveny & Myers (In Kind); Scott Pearl; Silicon Valley Community Foundation; Skift (In Kind); Spencer Foundation; Steans Family Foundation; Sue Lehmann; Susan Sawyers; Thalla-Marie and Heeten Choxi; The Assisi Foundation; The Anschutz Foundation; The Barton Family Foundation, a donor-advised fund of The Denver Foundation*; The Caswell Jin Foundation; The Colorado Health Foundation; The Colorado Trust; The Crown Family; The Denver Foundation; The Durst Organization (In Kind); The Glick Fund, a fund of the Central Indiana Community Foundation; The Indianapolis Foundation, a CICF affiliate; The John S. and James L. Knight Foundation; The Joyce Foundation; The McGregor Fund; The Moriah Fund; The Skillman Foundation; The Walton Family Foundation; Victoria Foundation; Walentas Foundation Ltd.; Washington Square Legal Services/NYU Business Transactions Clinic (In Kind); Wend Ventures; Widmeyer, A FinnPartners Company (In Kind); Will and Christina McConathy*; W.K. Kellogg Foundation; Yoobi (In Kind)
      (2) [as of January, 2019] See  https://www.the74million.org/supporters/  "Partners" include:  Triad Foundation, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, Park Avenue Charitable Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation, Bloomberg Philanthropies, California Community Foundation, Doris & Donald Fisher Fund, Gen Next Foundation, Karsh Family Foundation, Jon Sackler, William E. Simon Foundation, Charles Strauch, Walton Family Foundation.
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
           
           
           
             
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
Author cites (and accepts without checking) someone elses dismissive review
Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work
Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.