Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Link1
1 Laura S. Hamilton   "Despite the widespread enthusiasm for assessment-based reforms, many of the current and proposed uses of large-scale assessments are based on unverified assumptions about the extent to which they will actually lead to improved teaching and learning, and insufficient attention has been paid to the characteristics of assessment programs that are likely to promote desired outcomes." Denigrating Testing What Has Been Taught, p.47 American Educator, Winter 2010-2011  
2 Laura S. Hamilton   "Can assessments meaningfully be aligned to standards, … What would the key features of an assessment system designed to increase student learning and improve instruction be? While current assessment knowledge is not sufficient to fully answer these questions, in this article I offer an overview of what is known and several suggestions for improving our approach to assessment." Denigrating Testing What Has Been Taught, p.47 American Educator, Winter 2010-2011  
3 Laura S. Hamilton   "There is no research evidence to tell us definitively how to build an assessment system that will promote student learning and be resistent to the negative consequences that are common in high-stakes testing programs." Dismissive Testing What Has Been Taught, p.49 American Educator, Winter 2010-2011  
4 Laura S. Hamilton   Research on the effects of various assessment-design features is limited, so any effort that relies heavily on assessment as a tool for school improvement should be carried out with caution." Denigrating Testing What Has Been Taught, p.50 American Educator, Winter 2010-2011  
5 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Kun Yuan “A few studies have attempted to examine how the creation and publication of standards, per se, have affected practices.” p. 3 Dismissive Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions Center on Education Policy, December, 2008 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2009/RAND_RP1384.pdf
6 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Kun Yuan “The research evidence does not provide definitive answers to these questions.” p. 6 Denigrating Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions Center on Education Policy, December, 2008 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2009/RAND_RP1384.pdf
7 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Kun Yuan “He [Poynter 1994] also noted that ‘virtually all of the arguments, both for and against standards, are based on beliefs and hypotheses rather than on direct empirical evidence’ (p. 427). Although a large and growing body of research has been conducted to examine the effects of SBR, the caution Porte rexpressed in 1994 about the lack of empirical evidence remains relevant today.” pp. 34-35 Dismissive Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions Center on Education Policy, December, 2008 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2009/RAND_RP1384.pdf
8 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Kun Yuan “Arguably the most important test of quality is whether the standards promote high-quality instruction and improved student learning, but as we discuss later, there is very little research to address that question.” p. 37 Dismissive Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions Center on Education Policy, December, 2008 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2009/RAND_RP1384.pdf
9 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Kun Yuan “[T]here have been a few studies of SBR as a comprehensive system. . . . [T]here is some research on how the adoption of standards, per se, or the alignment of standards with curriculum influences school practices or student outcomes.” p. 38 Dismissive Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions Center on Education Policy, December, 2008 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2009/RAND_RP1384.pdf
10 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Kun Yuan “The lack of evidence about the effects of SBR derives primarily from the fact that the vision has never been fully realized in practice.” p. 47 Dismissive Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions Center on Education Policy, December, 2008 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2009/RAND_RP1384.pdf
11 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Kun Yuan “[A]lthough many conceptions of SBR emphasize autonomy, we currently know relatively little about the effects of granting autonomy or what the right balance is between autonomy and prescriptiveness.” p. 55 Dismissive Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions Center on Education Policy, December, 2008 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2009/RAND_RP1384.pdf
12 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Kun Yuan “One of the primary responsibilities of the federal government should be to ensure ongoing collection of evidence demonstrating the effects of the policies, which could be used to make decisions about whether to continue on the current course or whether small adjustments or a major overhaul are needed.” p. 55 Dismissive Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions Center on Education Policy, December, 2008 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2009/RAND_RP1384.pdf
13 Laura S. Hamilton Daniel F. McCaffrey, J.R. Lockwood, Daniel M. Koretz “The shortcomings of the studies make it difficult to determine the size of teacher effects, but we suspect that the magnitude of some of the effects reported in this literature are overstated.” p. xiii Denigrating Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability  Rand Corporation, 2003 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG158.pdf
14 Laura S. Hamilton Daniel F. McCaffrey, J.R. Lockwood, Daniel M. Koretz “Using VAM to estimate individual teacher effects is a recent endeavor, and many of the possible sources of error have not been thoroughly evaluated in the literature.” p. xix Dismissive Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability  Rand Corporation, 2003 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG158.pdf
15 Laura S. Hamilton Daniel F. McCaffrey, J.R. Lockwood, Daniel M. Koretz “Empirical evaluations do not exist for many of the potential sources of error we have identified. Studies need to be conducted to determine how these factors contribute to estimated teacher effects and to determine the conditions that exacerbate or mitigate the impact these factors have on teacher effects.” p. xix Dismissive Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability  Rand Corporation, 2003 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG158.pdf
16 Laura S. Hamilton Daniel F. McCaffrey, J.R. Lockwood, Daniel M. Koretz “This lack of attention to teachers in policy discussions may be attributed in part to another body of literature that attempted to determine the effects of specific teacher background characteristics, including credentialing status (e.g., Miller, McKenna, and McKenna, 1998; Goldhaber and Brewer, 2000) and subject matter coursework (e.g., Monk, 1994).” p. 8 Dismissive Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability  Rand Corporation, 2003 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG158.pdf
17 Laura S. Hamilton Daniel F. McCaffrey, J.R. Lockwood, Daniel M. Koretz “To date, there has been little empirical exploration of the size of school effects and the sensitivity of teacher effects to modeling of school effects.” p. 78 Dismissive Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability  Rand Corporation, 2003 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG158.pdf
18 Laura S. Hamilton Daniel F. McCaffrey, J.R. Lockwood, Daniel M. Koretz “There are no empirical explorations of the robustness of estimates to assumptions about prior-year schooling effects.“ p. 81 Dismissive Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability  Rand Corporation, 2003 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG158.pdf
19 Laura S. Hamilton Daniel F. McCaffrey, J.R. Lockwood, Daniel M. Koretz “There is currently no empirical evidence about the sensitivity of gain scores or teacher effects to such alternatives.” p. 89 Dismissive Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability  Rand Corporation, 2003 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG158.pdf
20 Laura S. Hamilton Daniel F. McCaffrey, J.R. Lockwood, Daniel M. Koretz “Empirical evaluations do not exist for many of the potential sources of error we have identified. Studies need to be conducted to determine how these factors contribute to estimated teacher effects and to determine the conditions that exacerbate or mitigate the impact these factors have on teacher effects.” p. 116 Dismissive Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability  Rand Corporation, 2003 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG158.pdf
21 Laura S. Hamilton Daniel F. McCaffrey, J.R. Lockwood, Daniel M. Koretz “Although we expect missing data are likely to be pervasive, there is little systematic discussion of the extent or nature of missing data in test score databases.” p. 117 Dismissive Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability  Rand Corporation, 2003 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG158.pdf
22 Brian M. Stecher Laura S. Hamilton "The business model of setting clear targets, attaching incentives to the attainment of those targets, and rewarding those responsible for reaching the targets has proven successful in a wide range of business enterprises. But there is no evidence that these accountability principles will work well in an educational context, and there are many reasons to doubt that the principles can be applied without significant adaptation." Dismissive Putting Theory to the Test: Systems of "Educational Accountability" Should be Held Accountable Rand Review, Spring 2002 https://www.rand.org/pubs/periodicals/rand-review/issues/rr-04-02/theory.html
23 Brian M. Stecher Laura S. Hamilton " The lack of strong evidence regarding the design and effectiveness of accountability systems hampers policymaking at a critical juncture." Denigrating Putting Theory to the Test: Systems of "Educational Accountability" Should be Held Accountable Rand Review, Spring 2002 https://www.rand.org/pubs/periodicals/rand-review/issues/rr-04-02/theory.html
24 Brian M. Stecher Laura S. Hamilton "Nonetheless, the evidence has yet to justify the expectations. The initial evidence is, at best, mixed. On the plus side, students and teachers seem to respond to the incentives created by the accountability systems Dismissive Putting Theory to the Test: Systems of "Educational Accountability" Should be Held Accountable Rand Review, Spring 2002 https://www.rand.org/pubs/periodicals/rand-review/issues/rr-04-02/theory.html
25 Brian M. Stecher Laura S. Hamilton "Proponents of accountability attribute the improved scores in these states to clearer expectations, greater motivation on the part of the students and teachers, a focused curriculum, and more-effective instruction. However, there is little or no research to substantiate these positive changes or their effects on scores." Dismissive Putting Theory to the Test: Systems of "Educational Accountability" Should be Held Accountable Rand Review, Spring 2002 https://www.rand.org/pubs/periodicals/rand-review/issues/rr-04-02/theory.html
26 Brian M. Stecher Laura S. Hamilton "One of the earliest studies on the effects of testing (conducted in two Arizona schools in the late 1980s) showed that teachers reduced their emphasis on important, nontested material." Dismissive Putting Theory to the Test: Systems of "Educational Accountability" Should be Held Accountable Rand Review, Spring 2002 https://www.rand.org/pubs/periodicals/rand-review/issues/rr-04-02/theory.html
27 Brian M. Stecher Laura S. Hamilton "Test-based accountability systems will work better if we acknowledge how little we know about them, if the federal government devotes appropriate resources to studying them, and if the states make ongoing efforts to improve them."  Dismissive Putting Theory to the Test: Systems of "Educational Accountability" Should be Held Accountable Rand Review, Spring 2002 https://www.rand.org/pubs/periodicals/rand-review/issues/rr-04-02/theory.html
28 Brian M. Stecher Laura S. Hamilton, Stephen P. Klein, Eds. "High-stakes testing may also affect parents (e.g., their attitudes toward education, their engagement with schools, and their direct participation in their child's learning) as well as policymakers (their beliefs about system performance, their judgements about program effectiveness, and their allocation of resources). However, these issues remain largely unexamined in the literature." Dismissive Consequences of large-scale, high-stakes testing on school and classroom practice Chapter 4 in Making sense of test-based accountability in education, 2002, p.79 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/2002/MR1554.pdf
29 Brian M. Stecher Laura S. Hamilton, Stephen P. Klein, Eds. "As described in chapter 2, there was little concern about the effects of testing on teaching prior to the 1970s." Dismissive Consequences of large-scale, high-stakes testing on school and classroom practice Chapter 4 in Making sense of test-based accountability in education, 2002, p.81 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/2002/MR1554.pdf
30 Brian M. Stecher Laura S. Hamilton, Stephen P. Klein, Eds. "In light of the changes that occurred in the uses of large-scale testing in the 1980s and 1990s, researchers began to investigate teachers' reactions to external assessment. The initial research on the impact of large-scale testing was conducted in the 1980s and the 1990s." Dismissive Consequences of large-scale, high-stakes testing on school and classroom practice Chapter 4 in Making sense of test-based accountability in education, 2002, p.83 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/2002/MR1554.pdf
31 Brian M. Stecher Laura S. Hamilton, Stephen P. Klein, Eds. "Researchers have not documented the desirable consequences of testing … as clearly as the undesirable ones. More importantly, researchers have not generally measured the extent or magnitude of the shifts in practice that they identified as a result of high-stakes testing." Dismissive Consequences of large-scale, high-stakes testing on school and classroom practice Chapter 4 in Making sense of test-based accountability in education, 2002, pp.99–100 https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/2002/MR1554.pdf
32 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Stephen P. Klein "Although test-based accountability has shown some compelling results, the issues are complex, the research is new and incomplete, and many of the claims that have received the most attention have proved to be premature and superficial." Denigrating Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Summary, p.xiv  
33 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Stephen P. Klein "The research evidence does not provide definitive information about the actual costs of testing but the information that is available suggests that expenditures for testing have grown in recent years." Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Introduction, p.9  
34 Laura S. Hamilton Daniel M. Koretz "There is currently no substantial evidence on the effects of published report cards on parents’ decisionmaking or on the schools themselves." Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 2: Tests and their use in test-based accountability systems, p.44
 
35 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "So test-based accountability remains controversial because there is inadequate evidence to make clear judgments about its effectiveness in raising test scores and achieving its other goals." Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.122  
36 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "Unfortunately, the complexity of the issues and the ambiguity of the existing research do not allow our recommendations to take the form of a practical “how-to” guide for policymakers and practitioners." Denigrating Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.123  
37 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "Another part of the interpretive question is the need to gather information
in other subject areas to portray a more complete picture of
achievement.
The scope of constructs that have been considered in
research
to date has been fairly narrow, focusing on the subjects that
are part of the accountability systems that have been studied. Many
legitimate instructional
objectives have been ignored in the literature
to date."
Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.127  
38 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "States should also conduct ongoing analyses of the performance of groups whose members may not be numerous enough to permit separate reporting. English-language learners and students with disabilities are increasingly being included in high-stakes testing systems, and, as discussed in Chapter Three, little is currently known about the validity of scores for these groups." Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.131  
39 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "It would be especially helpful to know what changes in instruction are made in response to different kinds of information and incentives. In particular, we need to know how teachers interpret information from tests and how they use it to modify instruction." Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.133  
40 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher It seems clear that aligning the components of the system and providing appropriate professional development should, at a minimum, increase teachers’ political support for test-based accountability policies .... Although there is no empirical evidence to suggest that this strategy will reduce inappropriate responses to high-stakes testing,... Additional research needs to be done to determine the importance of alignment for promoting positive effects of test-based accountability. Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.135  
41 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "… we currently do not know enough about test-based accountability to design a system that is immune from the problems we have discussed Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.136  
42 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "There is some limited evidence that educators’ responses to test based accountability vary according to the characteristics of their student populations,…" Denigrating Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.138  
43 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "... there is very limited evidence to guide thinking about political issues." Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.139  
44 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "First, we do not have an accurate assessment of the additional costs." Denigrating Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.141  
45 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "Part of the reason these issues are rarely considered may be that no one has produced a good estimate of the cost of an improved accountability system in comparison with its benefits." Denigrating Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.141  
46 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "Nevertheless, our knowledge of the costs of alternative accountability systems is still somewhat limited. Policymakers need to know how much it would cost to change their current systems to be responsive to criticisms such as those described in this book. These estimates need to consider all of the associated costs, including possible opportunity costs associated with increased testing time and increased test preparation time." Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.142  
47 Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "However, there is still much about these systems that is not well understood. Lack of research-based knowledge about the quality of scores and the mechanisms through which high-stakes testing programs operate limits our ability to improve these systems. As a result, our discussions also identified unanswered questions..." Dismissive Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6: Improving test-based accountability, p.143  
48 Daniel M. Koretz Daniel F. McCaffrey, Laura S. Hamilton "Few efforts are made to evaluate directly score gains obtained under high-stakes conditions, and conventional validation tools are not fully adequate for the task.", p. 1 Dismissive Toward a framework for validating gains under high-stakes conditions CSE Technical Report 551, CRESST/Harvard Graduate School of Education, CRESST/RAND Education, December 2001  
49 Laura S. Hamilton   “Despite the number of studies investigating affective aspects of test taking, little is known about how students perceive the kinds of extended performance assessments currently being developed for state and local testing programs.” - Abstract Denigrating An Investigation of Students' Affective Responses to Alternative Assessment Formats Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education (New Orleans, LA, April 5-7, 1994) http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED376203.pdf
50 Laura S. Hamilton   “As stated earlier, this study was not intended to produce results that could be generalized to other tasks or to other samples of students, but to identify questions that might be addressed by future studies and to suggest possible hypotheses.” p. 23 Dismissive An Investigation of Students' Affective Responses to Alternative Assessment Formats Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education (New Orleans, LA, April 5-7, 1994) http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED376203.pdf
               
  IRONIES:            
  Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher, Stephen P. Klein "Greater knowledge about testing and accountability can lead to better system design and more-effective system management." p.xiv   Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Summary, p.xiv  
  Laura S. Hamilton Brian M. Stecher "Incremental improvements to existing systems, based on current research on testing and accountability, should be combined with long-term research and development efforts that may ultimately lead to a major redesign of these systems. Success in this endeavor will require the thoughtful engagement of educators, policymakers, and researchers in discussions and debates about tests and testing policies."   Making Sense of Test-Based Accountability in Education, Rand Corporation, 2002 Chapter 6, Improving test-based accountability, pp.143-144  
               
      Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work        
      Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.