HOME:  Dismissive Reviews in Education Policy Research
  Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Funders Link1 Notes  
1 The Economist   " ... little research has been done on how CEOs make their choices, but a Harvard Business School working paper … " Dismissive The bird and the boss; Bartelby Economist online, November 13, 2022     One wonders how any decision-maker at a business-focussed magazine could believe such a statement in the year 2022. Indeed, the "how CEOs make their choices" theme has filled many a Harvard Business School case study dating back at least several decades.  
2 Jason Stoughton Esther Duflo, Abhijit Banerjee, & Michael Kremer [interviewees] "Countless lives have been helped or saved with the scientific evidence provided by an experimental approach three economists unleashed more than 20 years ago. Their innovation gave rise to a scientific movement that is clearly illuminating causality — how one thing directly causes another — within the intricate chaos of human behavior and society." 1stness The bubble-bursting, causality-revealing awesomeness of randomized controlled trials  NSF Website, September 22, 2022 U.S. National Science Foundation https://beta.nsf.gov/science-matters/bubble-bursting-causality-revealing-awesomeness Those thousands of randomized-controlled trials conducted prior to the mid-1990s? They don't count; they weren't conducted by economists.  
3 Jason Stoughton Esther Duflo, Abhijit Banerjee, & Michael Kremer [interviewees] "In the 1990s, a small group of researchers developed a scientifically rigorous way to design complex social experiments that can clearly distinguish those all-important causes from mere correlations and coincidences." 1stness The bubble-bursting, causality-revealing awesomeness of randomized controlled trials  NSF Website, September 22, 2022 U.S. National Science Foundation https://beta.nsf.gov/science-matters/bubble-bursting-causality-revealing-awesomeness Those thousands of randomized-controlled trials conducted prior to the mid-1990s? They don't count; they weren't conducted by economists.  
4 Jason Stoughton Esther Duflo, Abhijit Banerjee, & Michael Kremer [interviewees] "Over more than 20 years, RCTs have been used again and again in social experiments to slice through misconceptions, dispel vagaries and provide the evidence needed to implement policies and interventions that have saved millions of lives and improved the quality of life for countless more." 1stness The bubble-bursting, causality-revealing awesomeness of randomized controlled trials  NSF Website, September 22, 2022 U.S. National Science Foundation https://beta.nsf.gov/science-matters/bubble-bursting-causality-revealing-awesomeness Those thousands of randomized-controlled trials conducted prior to the mid-1990s? They don't count; they weren't conducted by economists.  
5 Jason Stoughton Esther Duflo, Abhijit Banerjee, & Michael Kremer [interviewees] "Duflo and her colleagues Abhijit Banerjee and Michael Kremer were awarded the 2019 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for their pioneering work studying causes and effects related to poverty and education, and in the process forging an indispensable tool for social science research." 1stness The bubble-bursting, causality-revealing awesomeness of randomized controlled trials  NSF Website, September 22, 2022 U.S. National Science Foundation https://beta.nsf.gov/science-matters/bubble-bursting-causality-revealing-awesomeness Those thousands of randomized-controlled trials conducted prior to the mid-1990s? They don't count; they weren't conducted by economists.  
6 Jason Stoughton Esther Duflo, Abhijit Banerjee, & Michael Kremer [interviewees] "It's turned out to be much more versatile than I would have anticipated," says Kremer of the many puzzles researchers have cracked using RCTs over the last three decades. Kremer was arguably the first researcher to conduct an RCT as a social experiment when he studied the effects of providing textbooks and other educational interventions for schoolchildren in Kenya in the mid-1990s." 1stness The bubble-bursting, causality-revealing awesomeness of randomized controlled trials  NSF Website, September 22, 2022 U.S. National Science Foundation https://beta.nsf.gov/science-matters/bubble-bursting-causality-revealing-awesomeness Those thousands of randomized-controlled trials conducted prior to the mid-1990s? They don't count; they weren't conducted by economists.  
7 Jason Stoughton Esther Duflo, Abhijit Banerjee, & Michael Kremer [interviewees] "The innovation that Duflo, Banerjee and Kremer helped unleash decades ago has indeed grown in all sorts of directions as the science and engineering community has increasingly found original ways to put RCTs to valuable new uses." 1stness The bubble-bursting, causality-revealing awesomeness of randomized controlled trials  NSF Website, September 22, 2022 U.S. National Science Foundation https://beta.nsf.gov/science-matters/bubble-bursting-causality-revealing-awesomeness Those thousands of randomized-controlled trials conducted prior to the mid-1990s? They don't count; they weren't conducted by economists.  
8 Jason Stoughton Esther Duflo, Abhijit Banerjee, & Michael Kremer [interviewees] "What we were told when we got the Nobel Prize is that we started a movement," recalls Duflo. Empowering the "randomista" movement and all the valuable results and discoveries that other researchers continue to achieve is what Duflo is most proud of." 1stness The bubble-bursting, causality-revealing awesomeness of randomized controlled trials  NSF Website, September 22, 2022 U.S. National Science Foundation https://beta.nsf.gov/science-matters/bubble-bursting-causality-revealing-awesomeness Those thousands of randomized-controlled trials conducted prior to the mid-1990s? They don't count; they weren't conducted by economists.  
9 Lauraine Langreo   "More research about the effectiveness of educational technology is desperately needed now that the K-12 ed-tech landscape has been reshaped over the past two years." "Milman also found that existing research often lacks theory and fails to recognize technology’s “deep-rooted harms and dichotomy.” Dismissive Research About Educational Technology Needs a More Critical and Useful Lens Education Week.June 29, 2022  Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/technology/research-about-educational-technology-needs-a-more-critical-and-useful-lens/2022/06    
10 Evie Blad   "More research is needed to understand the link between listening to students and better academic outcomes, the study’s authors wrote." Dismissive Really Listening to Students Has an Academic Payoff, New Research Finds Education Week.January 29, 2022  Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/really-listening-to-students-has-an-academic-payoff-new-research-finds/2022/06    
11 Sarah Butrymowicz   "First nationwide look at racial breakdown of career education confirms deep divides" 1stness First nationwide look at racial breakdown of career education confirms deep divides Hechinger Report, September 16, 2021 Hechinger Report funders (3) https://hechingerreport.org/first-nationwide-look-at-racial-breakdown-of-career-education-confirms-deep-divides/ No. See: https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/getpubcats.asp?sid=093. …and click on "expand all"  
12 Sarah Butrymowicz   "The Department of Education’s findings provide more evidence of racial disparities in career and technical education, first identified in a Hechinger Report/Associated Press analysis last year" 1stness First nationwide look at racial breakdown of career education confirms deep divides Hechinger Report, September 16, 2021 Hechinger Report funders (3) https://hechingerreport.org/first-nationwide-look-at-racial-breakdown-of-career-education-confirms-deep-divides/ No. See: https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/getpubcats.asp?sid=093. …and click on "expand all"  
13 Sarah Butrymowicz   "Career and technical education advocates have long called for data that breaks down enrollment by race and ethnicity." 1stness First nationwide look at racial breakdown of career education confirms deep divides Hechinger Report, September 16, 2021 Hechinger Report funders (3) https://hechingerreport.org/first-nationwide-look-at-racial-breakdown-of-career-education-confirms-deep-divides/ No. See: https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/getpubcats.asp?sid=093. …and click on "expand all"  
14 Sarah Butrymowicz   "Those statistics, released for the first time as part of new federal data on student enrollment in career and technical programs." 1stness First nationwide look at racial breakdown of career education confirms deep divides Hechinger Report, September 16, 2021 Hechinger Report funders (3) https://hechingerreport.org/first-nationwide-look-at-racial-breakdown-of-career-education-confirms-deep-divides/ No. See: https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/getpubcats.asp?sid=093. …and click on "expand all"  
15 Sarah Butrymowicz   "Yet CTE advocates have long had concerns — but little proof — about inequities that lie beneath the surface." Dismissive First nationwide look at racial breakdown of career education confirms deep divides Hechinger Report, September 16, 2021 Hechinger Report funders (3) https://hechingerreport.org/first-nationwide-look-at-racial-breakdown-of-career-education-confirms-deep-divides/ No. See: https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/getpubcats.asp?sid=093. …and click on "expand all"  
16 Sarah Butrymowicz   "Previously, the Department of Education only reported enrollment in CTE career areas by gender. The 2018 reauthorization of the federal law that governs career and technical education mandated racial data be reported as well." Dismissive First nationwide look at racial breakdown of career education confirms deep divides Hechinger Report, September 16, 2021 Hechinger Report funders (3) https://hechingerreport.org/first-nationwide-look-at-racial-breakdown-of-career-education-confirms-deep-divides/ No. See: https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/getpubcats.asp?sid=093. …and click on "expand all"  
17 Denisa R. Superville   While there is little research to explain fully this phenomenon, the authors posit that discrimination in hiring as well as access to mentoring could also play a role. Dismissive Is the Assistant Principal the Most Overlooked, Undervalued Person at School? Education Week.April 14, 2021 | Corrected: April 15, 2021   https://www.edweek.org/leadership/is-the-assistant-principal-the-most-overlooked-undervalued-person-at-school/2021/04    
18 Alia Wong   "The Educational Opportunity Project at Stanford University: This is the first national database of academic performance. Use the project’s “Explorer” tool to scrutinize performance in your school or community using three measures of educational opportunity — average test scores, learning rates, and test score trends." Firstness Data/Research: Equity in Education Education Writers Association, April 6, 2021 EWA funders (5) https://www.ewa.org/highlight/dataresearch-equity-education Really? What about the NAEP Data Explorer, which has been available for decades?  
19 Stephen Sawchuk Sarah D. Sparks In any case, none of the research so far is granular enough to say that students have lost specific skills, content, or foundations in math, like fractions or number sense. Denigrating Kids Are Behind in Math Because of COVID-19. Here’s What Research Says Could Help Education Week.December 02, 2020   https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/kids-are-behind-in-math-because-of-covid-19-heres-what-research-says-could-help/2020/12    
20 Sarah Butrymowicz Jeff Amy, Larry Fenn "The analysis offers a comprehensive look at data that states will be required to report to the federal government at the end of this year under the Carl D. Perkins Act. The $1.2 billion law that oversees career and technical education at the federal level was reauthorized in 2018 with an increased focus on equity. Previously, such data was only required to be reported by gender, where large disparities are also seen." Dismissive How career and technical education shuts out Black and Latino students from highpaying professions Hechinger Report, October 22, 2020 Hechinger Report funders (3) https://hechingerreport.org/how-career-and-technical-education-shuts-out-black-and-latino-students-from-high-paying-professions/ No. See: https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/getpubcats.asp?sid=093. …and click on "expand all"  
21 Sarah D. Sparks   "There has been very little research on very young students learning remotely, but emerging research on video lessons could provide clues for educators working to stem learning loss. Dismissive How Can Video-Conferenced Lessons Affect Learning for the Youngest Students? Education Week, October 7, 2020 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/how-can-video-conferenced-lessons-affect-learning-for-the-youngest-students/2020/10 "Researchers ... analyzed the effects of video lessons on children ages 6 and younger across nearly 60 studies."  So, at least 60 past studies … is "very little research."  
22 Sarah D. Sparks   "There has been very little research on very young students learning remotely, but emerging research on video lessons could provide clues for educators working to stem learning loss. Dismissive How Can Video Lessons Affect Learning for the Youngest Students?  Education Week, October 2, 2020 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/how-can-video-lessons-affect-learning-for-the-youngest-students/2020/10 "Researchers ... analyzed the effects of video lessons on children ages 6 and younger across nearly 60 studies."  So, at least 60 past studies … is "very little research."  
23 Sarah D. Sparks   "Strouse noted that there has been less research specifically on the effects of video instruction among preschool-through-grade 1 children" Dismissive How Can Video Lessons Affect Learning for the Youngest Students?  Education Week, October 2, 2020 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/how-can-video-lessons-affect-learning-for-the-youngest-students/2020/10 "Researchers ... analyzed the effects of video lessons on children ages 6 and younger across nearly 60 studies."  So, at least 60 past studies … is "very little research."  
24 Jill Barshay Daniel Koretz [interviewee] " In this country, we treat education data as the private sandbox of superintendents and commissioners. This is entirely different from how we treat data in other areas of public policy, such as medicine or airline safety." Dismissive PROOF POINTS: 5 Questions for Daniel Koretz  Hechinger Report, July 13, 2020 Hechinger Report funders (3) https://hechingerreport.org/proof-points-5-five-questions-for-daniel-koretz/ There are privacy controls on student data; there should probably be more and they should probably be enforced more vigourously. But, such controls are even stronger with medical data, which Koretz seems to imply here are weaker. Nonetheless, access to anonymized student data is granted all the time. Externally administered high-stakes testing is widely reviled among US educationists. It strains credulity that Koretz can not find one district out of the many thousands to cooperate with him to conduct a study to discredit testing.  
25 Jill Barshay Daniel Koretz [interviewee] "And so there aren’t that many studies, but the ones we have are quite consistent." Dismissive PROOF POINTS: 5 Questions for Daniel Koretz  Hechinger Report, July 13, 2020 Hechinger Report funders (3) https://hechingerreport.org/proof-points-5-five-questions-for-daniel-koretz/ In fact the test prep, or test coaching, literature is vast and dates back decades, with meta-analyses of the literature dating back at least to the 1970s. There's even a What Works Clearinghouse summary of the (post World Wide Web) college admission test prep research literature:  https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/InterventionReports/wwc_act_sat_100416.pdf .  See also: Gilmore (1927)   DeWeerdt (1927)  French (1959) French & Dear (1959)  Ortar (1960)  Marron (1965)  ETS (1965). Messick & Jungeblut (1981)  Ellis, Konoske, Wulfeck, & Montague (1982)  DerSimonian and Laird (1983)  Kulik, Bangert-Drowns & Kulik (1984)  Powers (1985) Samson (1985) Scruggs, White, & Bennion (1986)  Jones (1986). Fraker (1986/1987)  Halpin (1987)  Whitla (1988)  Snedecor (1989)  Bond (1989). Baydar (1990)  Becker (1990)  Smyth (1990)  Moore (1991)  Alderson & Wall (1992)  Powers (1993)  Oren (1993). Powers & Rock (1994)  Scholes, Lane (1997)   Allalouf & Ben Shakhar (1998)  Robb & Ercanbrack (1999)  McClain (1999)  Camara (1999, 2001, 2008) Stone & Lane (2000, 2003)  Din & Soldan (2001)  Briggs (2001)  Palmer (2002)  Briggs & Hansen (2004)  Cankoy & Ali Tut (2005)  Crocker (2005)  Allensworth, Correa, & Ponisciak (2008)  Domingue & Briggs (2009)  Koljatic & Silva (2014)  Early (2019) The many experimental studies of test coaching are consistent, it has some modest effect, and not the volatile or very large effects that Koretz claims.  
26 Jill Barshay Daniel Koretz [interviewee] "Experts have been writing about test score inflation since at least 1951. It’s not news but people have willfully ignored it." Denigrating PROOF POINTS: 5 Questions for Daniel Koretz  Hechinger Report, July 13, 2020 Hechinger Report funders (3) https://hechingerreport.org/proof-points-5-five-questions-for-daniel-koretz/ Seems hypocritical. The most famous, and most honest, study of test score inflation--which primarily blamed cheating, corruption, and lax test security for it--was conducted by John J. Cannell in the mid 1980s. Koretz and his colleagues at CRESST have misrepresented Cannell's reports for three decades. More recently, Koretz has claimed that he conducted the first test score inflation study around 1990.  
27 Stephen Sawchuk   "It could find no empirical research over that time period that directly linked discipline politices to school shootings." " Of those studies, not all were random-assignment studies—the “gold standard” for answering cause-and-effect questions—which meant that the agency couldn’t draw any bottom-line conclusions from them."  Dismissive Are Schools’ Discipline Policies Linked to Shootings? We Just Don’t Know Education Week.July 09, 2020    https://www.edweek.org/leadership/are-schools-discipline-policies-linked-to-shootings-we-just-dont-know/2020/07 So, researchers are supposed to set up random-assignment experiments with school shootings in the treatment group and no school shootings in the control group? Or, perhaps, they are to set up experiments with extreme discipline in a a control group to see if it induces more shootings, or extreme permissiveness to see if it does?  
28 Arianna Prothero   Published in the journal Science of Learning which is affiliated with the journal Nature, the study is one of only a few that have used objective measures of sleep—Fitbits—to track students’ sleep habits over an extended period of time, in this case an entire semester. While there is much research showing a connection between sleep and cognitive function in students, most of it has relied on students’ self-reporting. Dismissive, Denigrating Good Sleep Habits Are Better Than a Good Night’s Sleep for Test Performance, Study Finds Education Week.January 07, 2020   https://www.edweek.org/education/good-sleep-habits-are-better-than-a-good-nights-sleep-for-test-performance-study-finds/2020/01    
29 Marta W. Aldrich   "The findings, published this week in the Harvard Educational Review, aren’t a surprise. Previous research using data in multiple states and districts have come to similar conclusions. But it’s the first study to use national data and also to factor in achievement results."  1stness Money over merit? New study says gifted programs favor students from wealthier families Chalkbeat, October 4, 2019  Chalkbeat funders (1) https://chalkbeat.org/posts/tn/2019/10/04/money-over-merit-new-study-says-gifted-programs-favor-students-from-wealthier-families/ Doubtful. Psychologists have long worked in the field of gifted education. Indeed, some have specialized in it, and have created a large, robust research literature. One can find much of it at web sites such as "Hoagie's Gifted" and those for the gifted education research centers such as: Belin-Blank (in Iowa); Josephson (in Nevada); Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth (in Maryland); and Duke University's Talent Identification Program.  
30 Marta W. Aldrich   "The study examined access to gifted programs based on students’ family income, parental education, and occupational prestige, not just the traditional threshold of eligibility for free and reduced price lunch. That approach provided a deeper and wider look at the role of socioeconomic status and revealed some important divergences." Denigrating Money over merit? New study says gifted programs favor students from wealthier families Chalkbeat, October 4, 2019  Chalkbeat funders (1) https://chalkbeat.org/posts/tn/2019/10/04/money-over-merit-new-study-says-gifted-programs-favor-students-from-wealthier-families/ Doubtful. Psychologists have long worked in the field of gifted education. Indeed, some have specialized in it, and have created a large, robust research literature. One can find much of it at web sites such as "Hoagie's Gifted" and those for the gifted education research centers such as: Belin-Blank (in Iowa); Josephson (in Nevada); Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth (in Maryland); and Duke University's Talent Identification Program.  
31 Marta W. Aldrich Jason Grissom (interviewee) "We just don’t have good evidence on whether that kind of training is effective or not" Dismissive Money over merit? New study says gifted programs favor students from wealthier families Chalkbeat, October 4, 2019  Chalkbeat funders (1) https://chalkbeat.org/posts/tn/2019/10/04/money-over-merit-new-study-says-gifted-programs-favor-students-from-wealthier-families/ Doubtful. Psychologists have long worked in the field of gifted education. Indeed, some have specialized in it, and have created a large, robust research literature. One can find much of it at web sites such as "Hoagie's Gifted" and those for the gifted education research centers such as: Belin-Blank (in Iowa); Josephson (in Nevada); Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth (in Maryland); and Duke University's Talent Identification Program.  
32 Matt Barnum Brian Gill (interviewee) "“This is the first credible national study of the effects of charter schools on racial integration,” said Brian Gill, a researcher at Mathematica who has extensively studied charter schools. “This is a methodologically strong study that the field really needed.” 1stness Do charters further segregate America’s schools? Yes, new study says, but most blame lies elsewhere Chalkbeat, July 24, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/07/24/charter-schools-racial-segregation-research/    
33 Matt Barnum   "Now, a first-of-its-kind national study offers some of the clearest answers to date about whether charter schools are contributing to racial segregation." 1stness Do charters further segregate America’s schools? Yes, new study says, but most blame lies elsewhere Chalkbeat, July 24, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/07/24/charter-schools-racial-segregation-research/    
34 Matt Barnum   "A few months ago, I was at an education research conference where the preliminary results of a provocative study were presented. The research is among the first national, rigorous attempts to try answer an increasingly pressing question: Are charter schools exacerbating racial segregation?" 1stness Do charter schools make segregation worse? Chalkbeat, July 24, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://chalkbeat.org/posts/us/rise-and-shine/do-charter-schools-make-segregation-worse/    
35 Matt Barnum   "But amid the fierce debates, there has been virtually no research on whether the standards were actually accomplishing their goal of improving student learning." Dismissive Nearly a decade later, did the Common Core work? New research offers clues Chalkbeat, April 29, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/04/29/common-core-work-research/ The education policy researchers Barnum talks to have received money from the foundations promoting Common Core. For other evidence, look at the reports, and the research those reports cite, at the few think tanks that rejected Gates Foundation funds, such as the Pioneer Institute.   
36 Matt Barnum citing CALDER report "There’s very little other research on the Common Core. A 2015 Kentucky study showed students who were exposed to the standards made larger gains than students who weren’t." Dismissive Nearly a decade later, did the Common Core work? New research offers clues Chalkbeat, April 29, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/04/29/common-core-work-research/ The education policy researchers Barnum talks to have received money from the foundations promoting Common Core. For other evidence, look at the reports, and the research those reports cite, at the few think tanks that rejected Gates Foundation funds, such as the Pioneer Institute.   
37 Debra Viadero   "The research is also pretty thin on what the best strategies might be for lengthening the amount of time that students spend in school:" Dismissive Research Yields Clues on the Effects of Extra Time for Learning Education Week.September 22, 2008 | Corrected: February 22, 2019 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/policy-politics/research-yields-clues-on-the-effects-of-extra-time-for-learning/2008/09    
38 Mike Petrilli   "Smart analysis from @matt_barnum showing the growing disconnect between 8th grade test scores & high school grad rates. Pandering to Media   tweet, Jan. 29, 2019 Twitter https://twitter.com/MichaelPetrilli/status/1090280574797991936    
39 Mike Petrilli   "A lot of good education story ideas here from @alexanderrusso ..." Pandering to Media   tweet, Jan. 17, 2019 Twitter https://twitter.com/MichaelPetrilli/status/1085933676196696065    
40 Matt Barnum   "One potential response would be to raise the bar to graduate through high school exit exams. But research has shown that this approach has few clear benefits while increasing dropout rates, particularly among black and Hispanic students." Dismissive Across U.S., graduation rates are rising, with little connection to test scores Chalkbeat, January 28, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/01/28/graduation-rates-test-score-disconnect/ "the research" to which he refers is a small, selective part of the research literature on the topic  
41 Mayowa Aina Constance Lindsey [interviewee] "This is the first study of its kind to show that there are long-run effects." 1stness To Get To College, It Helps Black Students To Have A Black Teacher Early On NPR.org, January 11, 2019 NPR, Urban Institute funders      
42 Matt Barnum   "according to a comprehensive study released last week by the RAND Corporation. It appears to be the first randomized trial — the gold standard in social science research — of restorative justice in schools, a practice that has taken hold across the country." 1stness Major new study finds restorative justice led to safer schools, but hurt black students’ test scores Chalkbeat, January 4, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/01/04/the-first-gold-standard-study-of-restorative-justice-is-out-heres-what-it-tells-us/ Authors of the profiled study claimed that theirs was "one of the first;" journalist Barnum claims it to be "the first." Barnum cites a 2016 literature review, which itself: refers to several other randomized controlled trials of the topic funded at the same time by the same source (US DOJ) ( https://nij.gov/funding/awards/pages/awards-list.aspx?solicitationid=3878# ), admits its literature review is not exhaustive (see footnote 14); and, apparently, performed only a web search. Of the literature review's 69 references, one emanates from 1993, another from 1998, and all the rest from after the year 2000, with half from after 2009.  Research from 1999-2014 is called "early research." Reporter accepts self-interested researcher's word that their work is "rigorous" &"more sophisticated" and everything done earlier was crummy. A "void" in the research is determined by a search with two keywords in a single web-based index that, nonetheless, found 157 studies--though less than a couple dozen are referenced, and none predate 2002.
43 Matt Barnum   "For now, the study is one part of a small body of research looking at whether these kinds of alternative discipline strategies work." Dismissive Major new study finds restorative justice led to safer schools, but hurt black students’ test scores Chalkbeat, January 4, 2019 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2019/01/04/the-first-gold-standard-study-of-restorative-justice-is-out-heres-what-it-tells-us/ Authors of the profiled study claimed that theirs was "one of the first;" journalist Barnum claims it to be "the first." Barnum cites a 2016 literature review, which itself: refers to several other randomized controlled trials of the topic funded at the same time by the same source (US DOJ) ( https://nij.gov/funding/awards/pages/awards-list.aspx?solicitationid=3878# ), admits its literature review is not exhaustive (see footnote 14); and, apparently, performed only a web search. Of the literature review's 69 references, one emanates from 1993, another from 1998, and all the rest from after the year 2000, with half from after 2009.  Research from 1999-2014 is called "early research." Reporter accepts self-interested researcher's word that their work is "rigorous" &"more sophisticated" and everything done earlier was crummy. A "void" in the research is determined by a search with two keywords in a single web-based index that, nonetheless, found 157 studies--though less than a couple dozen are referenced, and none predate 2002.
44 Matt Barnum   "A trio of recent studies were among the first to document that teachers are more effective when they first taught under the supervision of high-quality teacher." 1stness What worked (and didn’t) this year: 10 lessons from education research to take into 2019 Chalkbeat, December 21, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/12/21/education-research-2018/ "Apprentice-style" teacher training has long been the norm in many countries and was the norm in the United States for at least a century. "Hasn't been studied?"  
45 Sarah D. Sparks   "There’s not much research on the timing or seasonality of child abuse. " "While the researchers are continuing to study what might be behind the connection between report card release and abuse, there are already a few things teachers and administrators could do to reduce children’s risk" Dismissive Friday Report Cards May Raise Risk of Child Abuse, Says Study Education Week.December 18, 2018 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/friday-report-cards-may-raise-risk-of-child-abuse-says-study/2018/12    
46 Matt Barnum   "The annual ritual of state testing in elementary and middle schools often comes within an unwelcome side effect: jittery, stressed-out kids.... Now, a first-of-its-kind study documents some of what’s actually happening to students." 1stness How the stress of state testing might make it harder for some students to show what they know Chalkbeat, December 13, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/12/13/stress-testing-research/ This is new? Test anxiety has been studied for several decades.  
47 David Loewenberg source is Matt Barnum "The research base for alternative strategies is still relatively limited and studies have shown mixed results on things like student attendance and school safety, as Chalkbeat’s Matt Barnum reported earlier this year." Dismissive What Do Teachers Really Think About School Discipline Reform? EWA Blog, Decenber 11, 2018 EWA funders (5) https://www.ewa.org/blog-educated-reporter/what-do-teachers-really-think-about-school-discipline-reform    
48 Marva Hinton   The research that does exist doesn’t tell them anything about what their program itself should look like, so we’re abandoning programs to do the best they we can. Dismissive New Study Calls for More Research Into Early-Childhood Teacher Preparation Education Week.December 10, 2018 Education Week funders https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/new-study-calls-for-more-research-into-early-childhood-teacher-preparation/2018/12    
49 Matt Barnum   "The study appears to be the first to look at this phenomenon specifically." 1stness Students show up to school more often when they see ‘familiar faces,’ new study finds Chalkbeat, November 28, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/11/28/attendance-peers-looping-students-stability-familiar-faces/    
50 Matt Barnum   "Now new research backs up Vazquez’s experience, documenting for perhaps the first time the steep consequences for students after teachers leave a classroom in middle of the school year." 1stness New research shows just how much losing a teacher midyear hurts students Chalkbeat, October 23, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/10/23/teacher-turnover-midyear-hurts-students/    
51 Matt Barnum   "But there’s been little reliable evidence that suspensions are the true cause of poor test scores or dismal graduation rates." Dismissive, Denigrating Suspensions really do hurt students academically, new studies confirm, but maybe less than previously thought. Chalkbeat, August 23, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/08/23/suspensions-really-do-hurt-students-academically-new-studies-confirm-but-maybe-less-than-previously-thought/ As evidence that little previous research exists, Barnum simply cites another author, in an Education Next article, who makes the claim ex cathedra.  
52 Matt Barnum   "Now, we’re closer to some answers. Three of four recent studies on the topic provide some of the strongest evidence yet that suspensions do in fact harm students’ academic performance. Dismissive, Denigrating Suspensions really do hurt students academically, new studies confirm, but maybe less than previously thought. Chalkbeat, August 23, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/08/23/suspensions-really-do-hurt-students-academically-new-studies-confirm-but-maybe-less-than-previously-thought/ As evidence that little previous research exists, Barnum simply cites another author, in an Education Next article, who makes the claim ex cathedra.  
53 Catherine Gewertz   "The AIR study doesn’t tackle the question of whether online credit recovery classes are as good as the regular courses that make up most high school students’ days. Rigorous evidence about the effectiveness of online courses for credit recovery is lacking" Dismissive, Denigrating Credit Recovery: Are Face-to-Face Classes Better Than Online? Education Week.July 25, 2018  Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/credit-recovery-are-face-to-face-classes-better-than-online/2018/07    
54 Matt Barnum   "Do student teachers learn more when they’re mentored by especially effective teachers? The answer may seem obvious, but there’s been little research confirming as much. Until now." 1stness Mentors matter: Good teaching really can be passed down to student teachers, new research finds Chalkbeat, July 16, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/07/16/mentors-matter-good-teaching-really-can-be-passed-down-to-student-teachers-new-research-finds/ Barnum makes the statement without offering any evidence.  
55 Stephen Sawchuk   "But despite that belief—or perhaps because it’s so ingrained in our thinking about schools—there just isn’t a lot of empirical research to back it up." "It’s good news, because there aren’t that many studies on civics education overall" Dismissive Can Education Produce More Civically Engaged Students? You Bet, Study Finds Education Week.May 09, 2018 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/can-education-produce-more-civically-engaged-students-you-bet-study-finds/2018/05    
56 Matt Barnum   "As school districts across the country have cut back on suspensions, critics claimed that the changes have led to chaos in the classroom. But there’s been remarkably little hard evidence either for or against that view." Dismissive, Denigrating When Chicago cut down on suspensions, students saw test scores and attendance rise, study finds Chalkbeat, March 13, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/03/13/when-chicago-cut-down-on-suspensions-students-saw-test-scores-and-attendance-rise-study-finds/    
57 Matt Barnum Daniel Koretz [interviewee] Journalist: I take it it’s very hard to quantify this test prep phenomenon, though? Koretz: It is extremely hard, and there’s a big hole in the research in this area. Dismissive Why one Harvard professor calls American schools’ focus on testing a ‘charade’ Chalkbeat, January 19, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/01/19/why-one-harvard-professor-calls-american-schools-focus-on-testing-a-charade/ In fact the test prep, or test coaching, literature is vast and dates back decades, with meta-analyses of the literature dating back at least to the 1970s. There's even a What Works Clearinghouse summary of the (post World Wide Web) college admission test prep research literature:  https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/InterventionReports/wwc_act_sat_100416.pdf . See also: Gilmore (1927)  French & Dear (1959)  Ortar (1960)  Marron (1965)  ETS (1965). Messick & Jungeblut (1981)  Ellis, Konoske, Wulfeck, & Montague (1982)  DerSimonian and Laird (1983)  Kulik, Bangert-Drowns & Kulik (1984)  Powers (1985)  Samson (1985) Scruggs, White, & Bennion (1986) Jones (1986). Fraker (1986/1987)  Halpin (1987)  Whitla (1988)  Snedecor (1989)  Bond (1989). Baydar (1990)  Becker (1990)  Smyth (1990)  Moore (1991)  Alderson & Wall (1992)  Powers (1993)  Oren (1993). Powers & Rock (1994)  Scholes, Lane (1997)   Allalouf & Ben Shakhar (1998)  Robb & Ercanbrack (1999)  McClain (1999)  Camara (1999, 2001, 2008) Stone & Lane (2000, 2003)  Din & Soldan (2001)  Briggs (2001)  Palmer (2002)  Briggs & Hansen (2004)  Cankoy & Ali Tut (2005)  Crocker (2005)  Allensworth, Correa, & Ponisciak (2008)  Domingue & Briggs (2009)  Koljatic & Silva (2014)  Early (2019)  
58 Matt Barnum Daniel Koretz [interviewee] "There aren’t that many studies, but they’re very consistent. The inflation that does show up is sometimes absolutely massive. Worse, there is growing evidence that that problem is more severe for disadvantaged kids, creating the illusion of improved equity." Dismissive Why one Harvard professor calls American schools’ focus on testing a ‘charade’ Chalkbeat, January 19, 2018 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/01/19/why-one-harvard-professor-calls-american-schools-focus-on-testing-a-charade/ In fact the test prep, or test coaching, literature is vast and dates back decades, with meta-analyses of the literature dating back at least to the 1970s. There's even a What Works Clearinghouse summary of the (post World Wide Web) college admission test prep research literature:  https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/InterventionReports/wwc_act_sat_100416.pdf . See also: Gilmore (1927)  French & Dear (1959)  Ortar (1960)  Marron (1965)  ETS (1965). Messick & Jungeblut (1981)  Ellis, Konoske, Wulfeck, & Montague (1982)  DerSimonian and Laird (1983)  Kulik, Bangert-Drowns & Kulik (1984)  Powers (1985)  Samson (1985) Scruggs, White, & Bennion (1986) Jones (1986). Fraker (1986/1987)  Halpin (1987)  Whitla (1988)  Snedecor (1989)  Bond (1989). Baydar (1990)  Becker (1990)  Smyth (1990)  Moore (1991)  Alderson & Wall (1992)  Powers (1993)  Oren (1993). Powers & Rock (1994)  Scholes, Lane (1997)   Allalouf & Ben Shakhar (1998)  Robb & Ercanbrack (1999)  McClain (1999)  Camara (1999, 2001, 2008) Stone & Lane (2000, 2003)  Din & Soldan (2001)  Briggs (2001)  Palmer (2002)  Briggs & Hansen (2004)  Cankoy & Ali Tut (2005)  Crocker (2005)  Allensworth, Correa, & Ponisciak (2008)  Domingue & Briggs (2009)  Koljatic & Silva (2014)  Early (2019)  
59 Matt Barnum   "This lesson may be the least surprising to policymakers. But as states try to help low-performing schools under the new federal education law, ESSA, they have a thin research base to draw from." Dismissive What we’ve learned: 5 lessons from education research to take into 2018 Chalkbeat, December 22, 2017 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2017/12/22/what-weve-learned-5-lessons-from-education-research-to-take-into-2018/    
60 Matt Barnum   "The study, which uses national data from 2005 to 2015 and was released this week through the National Bureau of Economic Research, appears to be the first to document how frequently teachers move states compared to those in other occupations. 1stness America’s teachers don’t move out of state much. That could be bad for students Chalkbeat, December 13, 2017 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2017/12/13/americas-teachers-dont-move-out-of-state-much-that-could-be-bad-for-students/    
61 Jill Barshay   "Unfortunately, there’s very little research on test prep and its effect on teaching quality. Dismissive Proof Points: Better tests don’t lead to better teaching, study finds Hechinger Report, November 13, 2017 Hechinger Report funders (3)   In fact the test prep, or test coaching, literature is vast and dates back decades, with meta-analyses of the literature dating back at least to the 1970s. There's even a What Works Clearinghouse summary of the (post World Wide Web) college admission test prep research literature:  https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/InterventionReports/wwc_act_sat_100416.pdf . See also: Gilmore (1927)   DeWeerdt (1927)  French (1959) French & Dear (1959)  Ortar (1960)  Marron (1965)  ETS (1965). Messick & Jungeblut (1981)  Ellis, Konoske, Wulfeck, & Montague (1982)  DerSimonian and Laird (1983)  Kulik, Bangert-Drowns & Kulik (1984)  Powers (1985)  Samson (1985) Scruggs, White, & Bennion (1986) Jones (1986). Fraker (1986/1987)  Halpin (1987)  Whitla (1988)  Snedecor (1989)  Bond (1989). Baydar (1990)  Becker (1990)  Smyth (1990)  Moore (1991)  Alderson & Wall (1992)  Powers (1993)  Oren (1993). Powers & Rock (1994)  Scholes, Lane (1997)   Allalouf & Ben Shakhar (1998)  Robb & Ercanbrack (1999)  McClain (1999)  Camara (1999, 2001, 2008) Stone & Lane (2000, 2003)  Din & Soldan (2001)  Briggs (2001)  Palmer (2002)  Briggs & Hansen (2004)  Cankoy & Ali Tut (2005)  Crocker (2005)  Allensworth, Correa, & Ponisciak (2008)  Domingue & Briggs (2009)  Koljatic & Silva (2014)  Early (2019)  Herndon (2021)  
62 Matt Barnum   "Chalkbeat combed through some of the most rigorous academic studies to get the answers." Denigrating Do school vouchers ‘work’? As the debate heats up, here’s what research really says Chalkbeat, July 12, 2017 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2017/07/12/do-school-vouchers-work-as-the-debate-heats-up-heres-what-research-really-says/    
63 Matt Barnum   "The only program that has been rigorously studied, Florida’s tax credit scholarship, ..." Denigrating Do school vouchers ‘work’? As the debate heats up, here’s what research really says Chalkbeat, July 12, 2017 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2017/07/12/do-school-vouchers-work-as-the-debate-heats-up-heres-what-research-really-says/    
64 Matt Barnum   "There is surprisingly little research on the effects of private school choice programs on segregation." Dismissive Do school vouchers ‘work’? As the debate heats up, here’s what research really says Chalkbeat, July 12, 2017 Chalkbeat funders (1) https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2017/07/12/do-school-vouchers-work-as-the-debate-heats-up-heres-what-research-really-says/    
65 Matt Barnum interviewing David Deming, Harvard Deming:  So, we were interested in the question of the longer-run impacts of school accountability.

Barnum:  Which have rarely, if at all, been studied before your research?

Deming:  That’s right
1stness 74 Interview: Harvard Researcher David Deming Takes the Long View on Head Start, Integration The 74, May 10, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/74-interview-harvard-researcher-david-deming-takes-the-long-view-on-head-start-integration/    
66 Matt Barnum   "That also means that research on tax credit programs is scarce." Dismissive To Test or Not to Test: As Tax Credit Scholarships Expand, Questions About Accountability and Outcomes The 74, May 4, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/to-test-or-not-to-test-as-tax-credit-scholarships-expand-questions-about-accountability-and-outcomes/    
67 Matt Barnum Max Eden [interviewee] "Using anecdotal evidence and surveys, critics claim that restricting suspensions may have a deleterious effect on school safety and climate, particularly without support, resources, or broader structural reforms. That’s the argument put forth in a report focusing on New York City by Max Eden, a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute," Denigrating The School Discipline Revolution: How Policy and Rhetoric Outstrip Hard Evidence The 74, May 2, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-school-discipline-revolution-how-policy-and-rhetoric-outstrip-hard-evidence/ Research from 1999-2014 is called "early research." Reporter accepts self-interested researcher's word that their work is "rigorous" &"more sophisticated" and everything done earlier was crummy. A "void" in the research is determined by a search with two keywords in a single web-based index that, nonetheless, found 157 studies--though less than a couple dozen are referenced, and none predate 2002. As the author Dan Brown said, "Google is not a synonym for research." This article was a promotion for the researchers contacted.  
68 Matt Barnum   "Yet there are no firm data showing that this is true." Dismissive The School Discipline Revolution: How Policy and Rhetoric Outstrip Hard Evidence The 74, May 2, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-school-discipline-revolution-how-policy-and-rhetoric-outstrip-hard-evidence/  
69 Matt Barnum   "there are little convincing data showing that suspensions in and of themselves cause these negative outcomes." Dismissive, Denigrating The School Discipline Revolution: How Policy and Rhetoric Outstrip Hard Evidence The 74, May 2, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-school-discipline-revolution-how-policy-and-rhetoric-outstrip-hard-evidence/  
70 Matt Barnum   "Similarly, restorative justice approaches — which emphasize reconciliation of conflict over punishment and are backed by many as a fairer, more effective alternative — have a thin research base." Dismissive The School Discipline Revolution: How Policy and Rhetoric Outstrip Hard Evidence The 74, May 2, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-school-discipline-revolution-how-policy-and-rhetoric-outstrip-hard-evidence/  
71 Matt Barnum   "Careful studies are currently in the works regarding the impacts of the school disciplinary changes sweeping the country." Denigrating The School Discipline Revolution: How Policy and Rhetoric Outstrip Hard Evidence The 74, May 2, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-school-discipline-revolution-how-policy-and-rhetoric-outstrip-hard-evidence/  
72 Matt Barnum   "There has also been little systematic research on why certain types of curriculum and textbooks are more effective than others." Dismissive New Studies Suggest Choice of Curriculum and Textbooks Can Make a Big Difference for Students The 74, May 1, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/new-studies-suggest-choice-of-curriculum-and-textbooks-can-make-a-big-difference-for-students/ A simple search for academic journals with the word “curriculum” in their title unearths more than a dozen journals with around 6,000 articles dating back to 1968: Curriculum Inquiry, from 1968, >2,500 articles; Journal of Curriculum Studies, from 1968, >1,500 articles; Language, Culture, and Curriculum, from 1988, >450 articles; Curriculum Journal, from 1990, >700 articles; Curriculum and Teaching, from 1995, ~500 articles; Teachers and Curriculum, from 1997, >200 articles; Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, from 1998, >500 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, from 2004, >300 articles; Curriculum Matters, from 2005, ~100 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2007–2014, >50; International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, from 2008, >150 articles; and Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, from 2013, >300 articles.
All that represents just a small proportion of research articles on curriculum that one would find if one searched all of the many thousands of education journals dating back a century, as well as the “grey literature” of graduate student theses, program evaluations, and governmental reports. A search on “curriculum” in ERIC gets 215,139 hits, in Google Scholar, 3,440,000 hits. To believe the dismissive review, one must believe that none among these many thousands of sources conducted a curricular evaluation or comparison. 
 
73 Matt Barnum Morgan Polikoff [interviewee] "One problem is simply a lack of information, according to Morgan Polikoff, a professor at the University of Southern California and co-author of one of the California studies. 'Very few states keep track of which districts adopt which books,' he said." Dismissive New Studies Suggest Choice of Curriculum and Textbooks Can Make a Big Difference for Students The 74, May 1, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/new-studies-suggest-choice-of-curriculum-and-textbooks-can-make-a-big-difference-for-students/ A simple search for academic journals with the word “curriculum” in their title unearths more than a dozen journals with around 6,000 articles dating back to 1968: Curriculum Inquiry, from 1968, >2,500 articles; Journal of Curriculum Studies, from 1968, >1,500 articles; Language, Culture, and Curriculum, from 1988, >450 articles; Curriculum Journal, from 1990, >700 articles; Curriculum and Teaching, from 1995, ~500 articles; Teachers and Curriculum, from 1997, >200 articles; Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, from 1998, >500 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, from 2004, >300 articles; Curriculum Matters, from 2005, ~100 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2007–2014, >50; International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, from 2008, >150 articles; and Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, from 2013, >300 articles.
All that represents just a small proportion of research articles on curriculum that one would find if one searched all of the many thousands of education journals dating back a century, as well as the “grey literature” of graduate student theses, program evaluations, and governmental reports. A search on “curriculum” in ERIC gets 215,139 hits, in Google Scholar, 3,440,000 hits. To believe the dismissive review, one must believe that none among these many thousands of sources conducted a curricular evaluation or comparison. 
 
74 Matt Barnum David Steiner [interviewee] "'To date, research on the curriculum effect has told us little about what makes a particular curriculum or genre of curriculum especially effective or not,” wrote Steiner." Dismissive New Studies Suggest Choice of Curriculum and Textbooks Can Make a Big Difference for Students The 74, May 1, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/new-studies-suggest-choice-of-curriculum-and-textbooks-can-make-a-big-difference-for-students/ A simple search for academic journals with the word “curriculum” in their title unearths more than a dozen journals with around 6,000 articles dating back to 1968: Curriculum Inquiry, from 1968, >2,500 articles; Journal of Curriculum Studies, from 1968, >1,500 articles; Language, Culture, and Curriculum, from 1988, >450 articles; Curriculum Journal, from 1990, >700 articles; Curriculum and Teaching, from 1995, ~500 articles; Teachers and Curriculum, from 1997, >200 articles; Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, from 1998, >500 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, from 2004, >300 articles; Curriculum Matters, from 2005, ~100 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2007–2014, >50; International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, from 2008, >150 articles; and Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, from 2013, >300 articles.
All that represents just a small proportion of research articles on curriculum that one would find if one searched all of the many thousands of education journals dating back a century, as well as the “grey literature” of graduate student theses, program evaluations, and governmental reports. A search on “curriculum” in ERIC gets 215,139 hits, in Google Scholar, 3,440,000 hits. To believe the dismissive review, one must believe that none among these many thousands of sources conducted a curricular evaluation or comparison. 
 
75 Matt Barnum David Steiner [interviewee] "'The paucity of evidence upon which sound instructional, purchasing, and policy decisions can be made is a matter of deep concern and urgent need,' wrote Steiner." Dismissive New Studies Suggest Choice of Curriculum and Textbooks Can Make a Big Difference for Students The 74, May 1, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/new-studies-suggest-choice-of-curriculum-and-textbooks-can-make-a-big-difference-for-students/ A simple search for academic journals with the word “curriculum” in their title unearths more than a dozen journals with around 6,000 articles dating back to 1968: Curriculum Inquiry, from 1968, >2,500 articles; Journal of Curriculum Studies, from 1968, >1,500 articles; Language, Culture, and Curriculum, from 1988, >450 articles; Curriculum Journal, from 1990, >700 articles; Curriculum and Teaching, from 1995, ~500 articles; Teachers and Curriculum, from 1997, >200 articles; Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, from 1998, >500 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, from 2004, >300 articles; Curriculum Matters, from 2005, ~100 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2007–2014, >50; International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, from 2008, >150 articles; and Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, from 2013, >300 articles.
All that represents just a small proportion of research articles on curriculum that one would find if one searched all of the many thousands of education journals dating back a century, as well as the “grey literature” of graduate student theses, program evaluations, and governmental reports. A search on “curriculum” in ERIC gets 215,139 hits, in Google Scholar, 3,440,000 hits. To believe the dismissive review, one must believe that none among these many thousands of sources conducted a curricular evaluation or comparison. 
 
76 Matt Barnum   "The first-of-its-kind study, which I detail in greater depth here, was conducted by American University’s Constance Lindsay and Seth Gershenson working in tandem with Cassandra Hart of the University of California, Davis, and Nicholas Papageorge of Johns Hopkins University.  1stness 5 Things We Now Know About Teacher Diversity: What Researcher Constance Lindsay Has Found About Race in School The 74, April 10, 2017 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/5-things-we-now-know-about-teacher-diversity-what-researcher-constance-lindsay-has-found-about-race-in-school/ "Anna Egalite, a researcher at North Carolina State University who has also found benefits of teacher diversity in her own research, reviewed the study at The 74’s request. She praised the paper — which has not gone through formal peer review — as “interesting” and said she did not “see any obvious biases or glaring issues with the research design.” But, it turns out, Ms. Egalite is hardly independent. She works for [the ed reform establishment] Education Next, and "Anna J. Egalite holds a Ph.D. in Education Policy from the [ed reform establishment] University of Arkansas; she completed her postdoctoral fellowship in the [ed reform establishment] Program on Education Policy and Governance at Harvard University."  
77 Matt Barnum   "Making students take a test to graduate high school helps them in the long run
"Many states have exams that students need to take and pass in order to graduate. The thinking is that such tests make a high school diploma more meaningful and raise academic standards. The policy has reasonable logic, but remarkably little evidence to support it."
Dismissive Barnum: Education Myths to Leave Behind in 2016 — 8 Dearly Held Beliefs That Aren’t Necessarily True The 74, December 26, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/barnum-2016-roundup-eight-education-beliefs-that-are-dearly-held-but-not-necessarily-true/ Just some of the relevant pre-2008 studies of the effects of minimum-competency or exit exams and the problems with a single passing score include those of Alvarez, Moreno, & Patrinos (2007); Grodsky & Kalogrides (2006); Audette (2005); Orlich (2003); StandardsWork (2003); Meisels, et al. (2003); Braun (2003); Rosenshine (2003); Tighe, Wang, & Foley (2002); Carnoy & Loeb (2002); Baumert & Demmrich (2001); Rosenblatt & Offer (2001); Phelps (2001); Toenjes, Dworkin, Lorence, & Hill (2000); Wenglinsky (2000); Massachusetts Finance Office (2000); DeMars (2000); Bishop (1999, 2000, 2001, & 2004); Grissmer & Flanagan(1998); Strauss, Bowes, Marks, & Plesko (1998); Frederiksen (1994); Ritchie & Thorkildsen (1994); Chao-Qun & Hui (1993); Potter & Wall (1992); Jacobson (1992); Rodgers, et al. (1991); Morris (1991); Winfield (1990); Ligon, Johnstone, Brightman, Davis, et al. (1990); Winfield (1987); Koffler (1987); Losack (1987); Marshall (1987); Hembree (1987); Mangino, Battaille, Washington, & Rumbaut (1986); Michigan Department of Education (1984); Ketchie (1984); Serow (1982); Indiana Education Department (1982); Brunton (1982); Paramore, et al. (1980); Ogden (1979); Down(2) (1979); Wellisch (1978); and Findley (1978).  
78 Matt Barnum   "A slew of studies have found that high school exit exams yield few of the benefits that their proponents promise — but produce a number of unintended consequences, like increased dropout rates, that hit poor kids of color the hardest. Perhaps because of the Common Core, many states are moving away from graduation tests — a move that is probably for the best." Dismissive Barnum: Education Myths to Leave Behind in 2016 — 8 Dearly Held Beliefs That Aren’t Necessarily True The 74, December 26, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/barnum-2016-roundup-eight-education-beliefs-that-are-dearly-held-but-not-necessarily-true/ Just some of the relevant pre-2008 studies of the effects of minimum-competency or exit exams and the problems with a single passing score include those of Alvarez, Moreno, & Patrinos (2007); Grodsky & Kalogrides (2006); Audette (2005); Orlich (2003); StandardsWork (2003); Meisels, et al. (2003); Braun (2003); Rosenshine (2003); Tighe, Wang, & Foley (2002); Carnoy & Loeb (2002); Baumert & Demmrich (2001); Rosenblatt & Offer (2001); Phelps (2001); Toenjes, Dworkin, Lorence, & Hill (2000); Wenglinsky (2000); Massachusetts Finance Office (2000); DeMars (2000); Bishop (1999, 2000, 2001, & 2004); Grissmer & Flanagan(1998); Strauss, Bowes, Marks, & Plesko (1998); Frederiksen (1994); Ritchie & Thorkildsen (1994); Chao-Qun & Hui (1993); Potter & Wall (1992); Jacobson (1992); Rodgers, et al. (1991); Morris (1991); Winfield (1990); Ligon, Johnstone, Brightman, Davis, et al. (1990); Winfield (1987); Koffler (1987); Losack (1987); Marshall (1987); Hembree (1987); Mangino, Battaille, Washington, & Rumbaut (1986); Michigan Department of Education (1984); Ketchie (1984); Serow (1982); Indiana Education Department (1982); Brunton (1982); Paramore, et al. (1980); Ogden (1979); Down(2) (1979); Wellisch (1978); and Findley (1978).  
79 Benjamin Herold   " …  the research evidence behind “personalized learning” remains thin." Dismissive Personalized Learning: What Does the Research Say? Education Week, October 18, 2016 Education Week funders https://www.edweek.org/technology/personalized-learning-what-does-the-research-say/2016/10 The Rand Corporation's Pane claims that no prior research exists, except for another Rand study, and then,  admits that there exist some relevant mastery learning studies from the 1980s. He implies, however, that there were only one or a few. In fact, there were hundreds. There have also been thousands  of studies of personalized instruction in conjunction with studies in special education, tutoring, teachers' aides, tracking, etc.   
80 Benjamin Herold   "Since 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has committed $300 million to support research and development around personalized learning, but officials there say it’s still “early days” for the field." Dismissive Personalized Learning: What Does the Research Say? Education Week, October 18, 2016 Education Week funders https://www.edweek.org/technology/personalized-learning-what-does-the-research-say/2016/10 The Rand Corporation's Pane claims that no prior research exists, except for another Rand study, and then,  admits that there exist some relevant mastery learning studies from the 1980s. He implies, however, that there were only one or a few. In fact, there were hundreds. There have also been thousands  of studies of personalized instruction in conjunction with studies in special education, tutoring, teachers' aides, tracking, etc.   
81 Benjamin Herold   "While a fair amount of research exists on specific personalization strategies, such as the use of adaptive math software, the literature includes very little on personalized learning as a comprehensive approach." Dismissive Personalized Learning: What Does the Research Say? Education Week, October 18, 2016 Education Week funders https://www.edweek.org/technology/personalized-learning-what-does-the-research-say/2016/10 The Rand Corporation's Pane claims that no prior research exists, except for another Rand study, and then,  admits that there exist some relevant mastery learning studies from the 1980s. He implies, however, that there were only one or a few. In fact, there were hundreds. There have also been thousands  of studies of personalized instruction in conjunction with studies in special education, tutoring, teachers' aides, tracking, etc.   
82 Benjamin Herold   "In 2015, Pane and his RAND colleagues undertook the field’s most comprehensive study to date. 1stness Personalized Learning: What Does the Research Say? Education Week, October 18, 2016 Education Week funders https://www.edweek.org/technology/personalized-learning-what-does-the-research-say/2016/10 The Rand Corporation's Pane claims that no prior research exists, except for another Rand study, and then,  admits that there exist some relevant mastery learning studies from the 1980s. He implies, however, that there were only one or a few. In fact, there were hundreds. There have also been thousands  of studies of personalized instruction in conjunction with studies in special education, tutoring, teachers' aides, tracking, etc.   
83 Benjamin Herold   "Unfortunately, the research findings to date from those grantees are not particularly deep, and the department’s own reports have sometimes drawn conclusions that don’t seem warranted by the available evidence." Denigrating Personalized Learning: What Does the Research Say? Education Week, October 18, 2016 Education Week funders https://www.edweek.org/technology/personalized-learning-what-does-the-research-say/2016/10 The Rand Corporation's Pane claims that no prior research exists, except for another Rand study, and then,  admits that there exist some relevant mastery learning studies from the 1980s. He implies, however, that there were only one or a few. In fact, there were hundreds. There have also been thousands  of studies of personalized instruction in conjunction with studies in special education, tutoring, teachers' aides, tracking, etc.   
84 Matt Barnum Dan Goldhaber, Matt Kraft (interviewees) "Despite the rhetoric, there is little evidence suggesting that testing and evaluation policies have led to across-the-board reductions in teacher retention or job satisfaction. (I asked two researchers — Dan Goldhaber of the University of Washington and Matt Kraft of Brown University — and both agreed there isn’t a great deal of research on the question.)" Dismissive The 74 Fact-Check: Are Teachers Really Burning Out Because of Tougher Tests and Evaluations? The 74, October 12, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-74-fact-check-are-teachers-really-burning-out-due-to-tougher-tests-and-evaluations/ Very much doubt that the teacher retention issue hasn't been studied, given all the animosity against testing among education professors and administrators. The relationship between job satisfaction and testing and standards has been studied extensively in surveys. See, for example, Phelps, The Effect of Testing on Student Achievement (2012) and Phelps (1998), The Demand for Standardized Testing.  
85 Anya Kamenetz & Elissa Nadworny Daphna Bassok (interviewee) "A big new study provides the first national, empirical data to back up the anecdotes. University of Virginia researchers Daphna Bassok, Scott Latham and Anna Rorem." 1stness More Testing, Less Play: Study Finds Higher Expectations For Kindergartners National Public Radio, June 21, 2016 NPR funders      
86 Matt Barnum   "Indeed, several research studies show that high school exit exams have few positive effects and several negative effects on student outcomes and are more likely to increase than reduce inequality in educational outcomes." Dismissive Reality Check: Are the Education Changes Demanded By Connecticut Judge Even Possible? The 74, June 18, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/reality-check-are-ed-changes-ct-judge-wants-possible/ Exit exams existed long before Barnum claims they did, even in the United States (in New York State and in many school districts. Contrary to Barnum's claims, much evidence has existed for a long time showing that exit exams tend to have beneficial effects on achievement near where the passing scores are set and no or negative effects far away from where the passing scores are set. Most countries with long-established exit exam programs set multiple targets--different curricular streams or different levels of rigor, so that all students may reach a target level relative to them. See, for example, https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Foundation/EffectiveTestingSystem.pdf  
87 Matt Barnum   "But decades of research now show that exit exams have not really raised standards, and have actually harmed disadvantaged students." Dismissive The Exit Exam Paradox: Did States Raise Standards So High They Then Had to Lower the Bar to Graduate? The 74, June 12, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-exit-exam-paradox-did-states-raise-standards-so-high-they-then-had-to-lower-the-bar-to-graduate/ Exit exams existed long before Barnum claims they did, even in the United States (in New York State and in many school districts. Contrary to Barnum's claims, much evidence has existed for a long time showing that exit exams tend to have beneficial effects on achievement near where the passing scores are set and no or negative effects far away from where the passing scores are set. Most countries with long-established exit exam programs set multiple targets--different curricular streams or different levels of rigor, so that all students may reach a target level relative to them. See, for example, https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Foundation/EffectiveTestingSystem.pdf  
88 Matt Barnum   "The argument for exit exams is that they will push students to work harder, and ensure a diploma is not devalued in the job market. Remarkably, considering how quickly the practice spread, there is virtually no evidence that these benefits have come to pass — and a host of research shows negative effects of the policy." Dismissive The Exit Exam Paradox: Did States Raise Standards So High They Then Had to Lower the Bar to Graduate? The 74, June 12, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-exit-exam-paradox-did-states-raise-standards-so-high-they-then-had-to-lower-the-bar-to-graduate/ Just some of the relevant pre-2008 studies of the effects of minimum-competency or exit exams and the problems with a single passing score include those of Alvarez, Moreno, & Patrinos (2007); Grodsky & Kalogrides (2006); Audette (2005); Orlich (2003); StandardsWork (2003); Meisels, et al. (2003); Braun (2003); Rosenshine (2003); Tighe, Wang, & Foley (2002); Carnoy & Loeb (2002); Baumert & Demmrich (2001); Rosenblatt & Offer (2001); Phelps (2001); Toenjes, Dworkin, Lorence, & Hill (2000); Wenglinsky (2000); Massachusetts Finance Office (2000); DeMars (2000); Bishop (1999, 2000, 2001, & 2004); Grissmer & Flanagan(1998); Strauss, Bowes, Marks, & Plesko (1998); Frederiksen (1994); Ritchie & Thorkildsen (1994); Chao-Qun & Hui (1993); Potter & Wall (1992); Jacobson (1992); Rodgers, et al. (1991); Morris (1991); Winfield (1990); Ligon, Johnstone, Brightman, Davis, et al. (1990); Winfield (1987); Koffler (1987); Losack (1987); Marshall (1987); Hembree (1987); Mangino, Battaille, Washington, & Rumbaut (1986); Michigan Department of Education (1984); Ketchie (1984); Serow (1982); Indiana Education Department (1982); Brunton (1982); Paramore, et al. (1980); Ogden (1979); Down(2) (1979); Wellisch (1978); and Findley (1978).  
89 Matt Barnum Sean Reardon (by email) “There is a general consensus in the research that high school exit exams increase dropout rates, [but] there is little or no evidence that they improve achievement or raise wages of students following high school.”  Dismissive The Exit Exam Paradox: Did States Raise Standards So High They Then Had to Lower the Bar to Graduate? The 74, June 12, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-exit-exam-paradox-did-states-raise-standards-so-high-they-then-had-to-lower-the-bar-to-graduate/ Just some of the relevant pre-2008 studies of the effects of minimum-competency or exit exams and the problems with a single passing score include those of Alvarez, Moreno, & Patrinos (2007); Grodsky & Kalogrides (2006); Audette (2005); Orlich (2003); StandardsWork (2003); Meisels, et al. (2003); Braun (2003); Rosenshine (2003); Tighe, Wang, & Foley (2002); Carnoy & Loeb (2002); Baumert & Demmrich (2001); Rosenblatt & Offer (2001); Phelps (2001); Toenjes, Dworkin, Lorence, & Hill (2000); Wenglinsky (2000); Massachusetts Finance Office (2000); DeMars (2000); Bishop (1999, 2000, 2001, & 2004); Grissmer & Flanagan(1998); Strauss, Bowes, Marks, & Plesko (1998); Frederiksen (1994); Ritchie & Thorkildsen (1994); Chao-Qun & Hui (1993); Potter & Wall (1992); Jacobson (1992); Rodgers, et al. (1991); Morris (1991); Winfield (1990); Ligon, Johnstone, Brightman, Davis, et al. (1990); Winfield (1987); Koffler (1987); Losack (1987); Marshall (1987); Hembree (1987); Mangino, Battaille, Washington, & Rumbaut (1986); Michigan Department of Education (1984); Ketchie (1984); Serow (1982); Indiana Education Department (1982); Brunton (1982); Paramore, et al. (1980); Ogden (1979); Down(2) (1979); Wellisch (1978); and Findley (1978).  
90 Matt Barnum   "Much less discussion, though, at least among national commentators, has focused on the stakes for students.

It’s clear that high-school exit exams have very high stakes indeed."
Dismissive The Exit Exam Paradox: Did States Raise Standards So High They Then Had to Lower the Bar to Graduate? The 74, June 12, 2016 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/the-exit-exam-paradox-did-states-raise-standards-so-high-they-then-had-to-lower-the-bar-to-graduate/ Aa abundance of research has focused on the effects of high-stakes tests on students. See, for example, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920  Also, most high school exit exams have been targeted to a very low achievement level--8th or 9th grade. Contradicting himself, Barnum mentions 'minimum competency' exams elsewhere in his article."  
91 Alia Wong Thomas Dee (interviewee) "The prevalence of test-score manipulation in the United States is well-documented. ... What hasn’t been well-documented are the causes and consequences of such manipulation. Dismissive Why Would a Teacher Cheat? Educators often choose to inflate students' scores on standardized tests, and the motivations—and effects—indicate that a little deception isn't always a bad thing. The Atlantic, April 27, 2016   https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/04/why-teachers-cheat/480039/ Actually, it has been, in surveys, in which respondents freely admit that they cheat and how. Moreover, news reports of cheating, by students or educators, have been voluminous. See, for example, Caveon Test Security's "Cheating in the News" section on its web site.  
92 Anya Kamenetz   "Today, the first large-scale, randomized controlled trial of student performance in these courses [online credit recovery]  is out from the American Institutes of Research, and the news is not great." 1stness Research Finds Poor Outcomes For Students Who Retake Courses Online National Public Radio, April 8, 2016 NPR funders https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/04/08/473273580/research-finds-poor-outcomes-for-students-who-retake-courses-online    
93 Matt Barnum   "Most districts’ evaluations are new and there’s little evidence regarding how good they are." Dismissive Inside the New TNTP Research: Is Teacher Training Just An Expensive Waste of Time? The 74, August 4, 2015 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/inside-the-new-tntp-research-is-teacher-training-just-an-expensive-waste-of-time/ "Apprentice-style" teacher training has long been the norm in many countries and was the norm in the United States for at least a century. "Hasn't been tried much"?  
94 Matt Barnum   "there’s limited knowledge about what consistently works for teacher development." Dismissive Inside the New TNTP Research: Is Teacher Training Just An Expensive Waste of Time? The 74, August 4, 2015 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/inside-the-new-tntp-research-is-teacher-training-just-an-expensive-waste-of-time/ "Apprentice-style" teacher training has long been the norm in many countries and was the norm in the United States for at least a century. "Hasn't been tried much"?  
95 Matt Barnum   "There is admittedly little evidence on how effective such an approach [apprenticeship-style teacher training] would be — mostly because it hasn’t been tried much — but it’s well worth attempting." Dismissive Inside the New TNTP Research: Is Teacher Training Just An Expensive Waste of Time? The 74, August 4, 2015 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/inside-the-new-tntp-research-is-teacher-training-just-an-expensive-waste-of-time/ "Apprentice-style" teacher training has long been the norm in many countries and was the norm in the United States for at least a century. "Hasn't been tried much"?  
96 Matt Barnum   "The lack of evidence in favor of teacher development points to an obvious solution" Dismissive Inside the New TNTP Research: Is Teacher Training Just An Expensive Waste of Time? The 74, August 4, 2015 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/inside-the-new-tntp-research-is-teacher-training-just-an-expensive-waste-of-time/ "Apprentice-style" teacher training has long been the norm in many countries and was the norm in the United States for at least a century. "Hasn't been tried much"?  
97 Christina A. Samuels   "But the report—aimed at district and state policymakers—also acknowledges that the research base in this area is thin. Thus, the policies currently in place may not be working all that well." Dismissive What We (Don’t) Know About English-Learners and Special Education Education Week, July 22, 2015 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/what-we-dont-know-about-english-learners-and-special-education/2015/07 EdWeek article leads with dismissive review claim, as does the report the article summarizes. The report cites fifty sources--a mix of journal articles and government and organization reports. Oddly, no references are made to the federal-government funded research center at the University of Minnesota, the National Center for Educational Outcomes, nor to Martha Thurlow, the co-director of the center who, for decades, specialized in research on English-language learners with disabilities (including learning disabilities). Also, none of the research sources pre-dates the late 1990s, suggesting the research literature search was conducted entirely on the Wold Wide Web.  
98 Matt Barnum   "Little, if any, research exists on New York’s certification test specifically." Dismissive Raising The Bar Might Bar Too Many When It Comes To Teacher Certification Tests The 74, July 17, 2015 The 74 funders (2) https://www.the74million.org/article/raising-the-bar-might-bar-too-many-when-it-comes-to-teacher-certification-tests/ Every stage of test development, administration, and analysis at National (now Pearson) Evaluation Systems—the contractors for the NYS licensure tests—was thoroughly reported, year after year after year.  
99 Anya Kamenetz   "More imporant, there is no evidence that the effects of high-stakes tests … will indeed prepare more students to succeed in college." p.36 Dismissive Chapter 1. Ten Arguments Against Testing The Test, Public Affairs Books, 2015 NPR funders   In fact, a very large number of studies do so. See, for example, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0193841X19865628#abstract & https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920 ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm Nonsense. Just some of the relevant studies of the effects of tests and/or accountability program on motivation and instructional practice include those of the *Southern Regional Education Board (1998); Johnson (1998); Schafer, Hultgren, Hawley, Abrams Seubert & Mazzoni (1997); Miles, Bishop, Collins, Fink, Gardner, Grant, Hussain, et al. (1997); Tuckman & Trimble (1997); Clarke & Stephens (1996); Zigarelli (1996); Stevenson, Lee, et al. (1995); Waters, Burger & Burger (1995); Egeland (1995); Prais (1995); Tuckman (1994); Ritchie & Thorkildsen (1994); Brown & Walberg, (1993); Wall & Alderson (1993); Wolf & Rapiau (1993); Eckstein & Noah (1993); Chao-Qun & Hui (1993); Plazak & Mazur (1992); Steedman (1992); Singh, Marimutha & Mukjerjee (1990); *Levine & Lezotte (1990); O’Sullivan (1989); Somerset (1988); Pennycuick & Murphy (1988); Stevens (1984); Marsh (1984); Brunton (1982); Solberg (1977); Foss (1977); *Kirkland (1971); Somerset (1968); Stuit (1947); and Keys (1934).  *Covers many studies; study is a research review, research synthesis, or meta-analysis.
100 Jill Barshay   "Andrew mined two large data sets in a way no researcher has done before…" Dismissive New research suggests repeating elementary school grades — even kindergarten — is harmful Hechinger Report, Education by the Numbers, October 13, 2014 Hechinger Report funders (3)      
101 Jill Barshay   "Most early research overstated how harmful it is to be held back a grade. It tended to point out that the struggling kids who repeat a grade don’t fare as well as kids who stay with their class, most of whom are not struggling. But that’s shoddy research." Denigrating New research suggests repeating elementary school grades — even kindergarten — is harmful Hechinger Report, Education by the Numbers, October 13, 2014 Hechinger Report funders (3)      
102 Jill Barshay   "In data analysis terms, this early research conflated the bad effects being held back with the bad effects of the underlying issue that led a school (or a parent) to hold the child back in the first place." Denigrating New research suggests repeating elementary school grades — even kindergarten — is harmful Hechinger Report, Education by the Numbers, October 13, 2014 Hechinger Report funders (3)      
103 Jill Barshay   "Even as the low quality research kept showing that holding kids back was bad, a growing chorus of critics urged schools to end “social promotion,” Denigrating New research suggests repeating elementary school grades — even kindergarten — is harmful Hechinger Report, Education by the Numbers, October 13, 2014 Hechinger Report funders (3)      
104 Jill Barshay   "Those urban experiments attracted sophisticated researchers. Brian Jacob and Lars Lefgren studied students in Chicago, where the decision to hold a student back was based on a test score." Denigrating New research suggests repeating elementary school grades — even kindergarten — is harmful Hechinger Report, Education by the Numbers, October 13, 2014 Hechinger Report funders (3)      
105 Bryan Toporek   While research suggests a clear corollary between an athlete’s practice time and elite performance in a sport, there’s little research that supports the idea of 10,000 hours of practice being the key threshold. Dismissive Research Debunks Importance of Single-Sport Specialization for Youths Education Week.September 20, 2013 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/research-debunks-importance-of-single-sport-specialization-for-youths/2013/09    
106 Holly Kurtz   But past research has not necessarily explored the interaction between the engagement levels of individual students and the overall environment of their classrooms. Dismissive Research Reveals ‘Rich Get Richer’ Scenario in Kindergarten Math Education Week.September 20, 2013 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/research-reveals-rich-get-richer-scenario-in-kindergarten-math/2014/05    
107 Christina A. Samuels   "But, despite the emphasis on transition planning in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, relatively little research on transition programs meets What Works Clearinghouse standards for evidence of effectiveness, according to a report released this month" Dismissive Study: Postsecondary Transition Programs Lack Effectiveness Evidence Education Week.August 28, 2013  Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/study-postsecondary-transition-programs-lack-effectiveness-evidence/2013/08 "For the review, researchers compiled information on studies conducted between April 2008 and June 2011" "Only 43 studies conducted in that time frame met the standard. "  
108 Christina A. Samuels   "The lack of research in this area makes it difficult to identify a range of programs that would successfully help students with disabilities bridge the gap from high school to independent living, college, or the workforce" Dismissive Study: Postsecondary Transition Programs Lack Effectiveness Evidence Education Week.August 28, 2013  Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/study-postsecondary-transition-programs-lack-effectiveness-evidence/2013/08 "For the review, researchers compiled information on studies conducted between April 2008 and June 2011" "Only 43 studies conducted in that time frame met the standard. "  
109 Mike Bock   "A new 69-page report released by the Joan Ganz Cooney Center concludes that more research is needed to understand children and teenagers’ social-media habits. " Dismissive Research on Kids’ Social-Media Habits Seen Lacking Education Week.November 08, 2012 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/education/research-on-kids-social-media-habits-seen-lacking/2012/11    
110 Sean Cavanagh   "Of course, many education advocates and scholars have long been frustrated by the paucity of rigorous research across the specturm of school policy."  Denigrating Review Finds Studies of Charter Schools Flawed, Problematic Education Week, February 8, 2012 Education Week funders (4)      
111 Michelle R. Davis   "Very little high-quality, objective research on the subject is available." Dismissive, Denigrating Virtual Education Seen as Understudied Education Week, January 12, 2012 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/virtual-education-seen-as-understudied/2012/02    
112 Michelle R. Davis   "To date, however, only a few studies--often small-scale or dealing with isolated examples--have looked at those issues." Dismissive, Denigrating Virtual Education Seen as Understudied Education Week, January 12, 2012 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/virtual-education-seen-as-understudied/2012/02    
113 Debra Viadero   "Research Doesn’t Offer Much Guidance on Turnarounds" Dismissive Research Doesn’t Offer Much Guidance on Turnarounds Education Week, August 4, 2009 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/policy-politics/research-doesnt-offer-much-guidance-on-turnarounds/2009/08 Title of article is very misleading. Article begins with a dismissive claim. Then SEVERAL other scholars refute the claim, but the dismissive claim ends up in the headline.  
114 Debra Viadero   "But research has far to go to identify exactly what factors make an online course effective." Dismissive, Denigrating Research Shows Evolving Picture of E-Education Education Week, March 24, 2009 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/policy-politics/research-shows-evolving-picture-of-e-education/2009/03    
115 Scott J. Cech Daniel Koretz [interviewee] “'If you tell people that performance on that tested sample is what matters, that’s what they worry about, so you can get inappropriate responses in the classroom and inflated test scores,' he said."    Mr. Koretz pointed to research in the 1990s on the state standardized test then used in Kentucky, ... " Dismissive Testing Expert Sees ‘Illusions of Progress’ Under NCLB Education Week, October 1, 2008 Education Week funders (4)   Koretz's score inflation studies typically employ no controls for test administration or test content factors. One of his tests might be administered with tight security and the other with none at all. One of his tests might focus on one subject area and the other test another topic entirely. He writes as if all of his "left out" variables could not possibly matter. Moreover, he ignores completely the huge experimental literature on test prep in favor of his apples-to-oranges comparison studies.  
116 Scott J. Cech Daniel Koretz [interviewee] "Mr. Koretz said the relative dearth to date of comparative studies on large-scale state assessments isn’t for lack of trying. He said he and other scholars have often been rebuffed after approaching officials about the possibility of studying their assessment systems. Dismissive Testing Expert Sees ‘Illusions of Progress’ Under NCLB Education Week, October 1, 2008 Education Week funders (4)   Externally administered high-stakes testing is widely reviled among US educationists. It strains credulity that Koretz can not find one district out of the many thousands to cooperate with him to discredit testing.  
117 Scott J. Cech Daniel Koretz [interviewee] There have not been a lot of studies of this,” Mr. Koretz said, “for the simple reason that it’s politically rather hard to do, to come to a state chief and say, ‘I’d like the chance to see whether your test scores are inflated.’?” Dismissive Testing Expert Sees ‘Illusions of Progress’ Under NCLB Education Week, October 1, 2008 Education Week funders (4)   Externally administered high-stakes testing is widely reviled among US educationists. It strains credulity that Koretz can not find one district out of the many thousands to cooperate with him to discredit testing.  
118 Debra Viadero "The research is also pretty thin on what the best strategies might be for lengthening the amount of time that students spend in school:" Dismissive Research Yields Clues on the Effects of Extra Time for Learning Education Week.September 22, 2008 | Corrected: February 22, 2019 https://www.edweek.org/policy-politics/research-yields-clues-on-the-effects-of-extra-time-for-learning/2008/09
119 Eduwonkette (Jennifer Jennings) Daniel Koretz [interviewee] “Unfortunately, while we have a lot of anecdotal evidence suggesting that this [equity as the rationale for NCLB] is the case, we have very few serious empirical studies of this.” answer to 3rd question, 1st para Denigrating What does educational testing really tell us?  Education Week [interview ], 9.23.2008 Education Week funders (4) http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/eduwonkette/2008/09/what_does_educational_testing_1.html A "rationale" is an argument, a belief, an explanation, not an empirical result. The civil rights groups that supported NCLB did so because they saw it as an equity vehicle.   
120 Mary Ann Zehr   Two recent reviews of research on ELLs say little or nothing about push-in versus pull-out.  Dismissive Research on Push-In Versus Pull-Out Education Week.June 24, 2008 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/education/research-on-push-in-versus-pull-out/2008/06    
121 Valerie Strauss Daniel Koretz [interviewee] "“The testing culture ‘has a lot more momentum than it should,’ agreed [CRESST researcher Koretz].  He said a lack of solid research on the results of the new testing regimen—or those that predated No Child Left Behind—essentially means that the country is experimenting with its young people." Dismissive The rise of the testing culture, p.A09 Washington Post (2006, October 10).     In fact, a very large number of studies do so. See, for example, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0193841X19865628#abstract & https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920 ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm  
122 Debra Viadero   "Of the most popular organizations and companies that are hired to run troubled public schools, only one has accumulated a solid body of evidence to show that it does improve student achievement. " "But even that evidence was not enough to warrant Edison an effectiveness rating any stronger than “moderate” by the research group’s standards. " Denigrating Research Group Rates Effectiveness of Educational Management Organizations Education Week.April 24, 2006 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/research-group-rates-effectiveness-of-educational-management-organizations/2006/04    
123 Darcia Harris Bowman   There’s no evidence that [preadolescent] children with social phobia have the negative thoughts associated with the condition in adults,” Dismissive Research: Scared Silent Education Week.March 26, 2003 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/research-scared-silent/2003/03    
124 Manhattan Institute Christian Bourge (journalist), interviewer "But because there is little empirical evidence either way, the debate on this question has long featured arguments from both sides that are supported mostly by anecdotes."  Dismissive, Denigrating "Experts Differ about High-stakes Testing,"  February 11, 2003. UPI   https://www.upi.com/Top_News/2003/02/13/Experts-differ-about-high-stakes-testing/60271045180206/ Nonsense. Just some of the relevant studies of the effects of tests and/or accountability program on motivation and instructional practice include those of the *Southern Regional Education Board (1998); Johnson (1998); Schafer, Hultgren, Hawley, Abrams Seubert & Mazzoni (1997); Miles, Bishop, Collins, Fink, Gardner, Grant, Hussain, et al. (1997); Tuckman & Trimble (1997); Clarke & Stephens (1996); Zigarelli (1996); Stevenson, Lee, et al. (1995); Waters, Burger & Burger (1995); Egeland (1995); Prais (1995); Tuckman (1994); Ritchie & Thorkildsen (1994); Brown & Walberg, (1993); Wall & Alderson (1993); Wolf & Rapiau (1993); Eckstein & Noah (1993); Chao-Qun & Hui (1993); Plazak & Mazur (1992); Steedman (1992); Singh, Marimutha & Mukjerjee (1990); *Levine & Lezotte (1990); O’Sullivan (1989); Somerset (1988); Pennycuick & Murphy (1988); Stevens (1984); Marsh (1984); Brunton (1982); Solberg (1977); Foss (1977); *Kirkland (1971); Somerset (1968); Stuit (1947); and Keys (1934).  *Covers many studies; study is a research review, research synthesis, or meta-analysis.  
125 Lynn Schnaiberg   "A survey of the limited research that has been done on the demographics of charter schools suggests that in some places, they are contributing to the racial and ethnic isolation of their students. "  Dismissive, Denigrating Research on Charters and Integration Is Limited Education Week.May 10, 2000 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/policy-politics/research-on-charters-and-integration-is-limited/2000/05    
126 Lynn Schnaiberg   "Most studies to date have focused on comparing, in the aggregate, the share of minority students served in charter schools versus traditional public schools in a given state. The problem with this method is that in many states, charter schools are concentrated in urban areas that tend to have higher proportions of minority students than the state’s schools as a whole."  Dismissive, Denigrating Research on Charters and Integration Is Limited Education Week.May 10, 2000 Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/policy-politics/research-on-charters-and-integration-is-limited/2000/05    
127 Debra Viadero Daniel Koretz [interviewee] “...all of the researchers interviewed agreed with FairTest’s contention that research evidence supporting the use of high-stakes tests as a means of improving schools is thin.”   Dismissive FairTest report questions reliance on high-stakes testing by states Education Week.January 28, 1998. Education Week funders (4)   In fact, a very large number of studies do so. See, for example, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0193841X19865628#abstract & https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920 ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm  
128 Millicent Lawton   "The report also calls for research on the frequency, causes, and consequences of violence in schools and other institutions where children are in the custody of adults." "Research also should focus on reducing the potential for violence by gangs and on determining the role of drugs and firearms in violent events, with special attention paid to patterns of firearms acquisition and use by juveniles." Dismissive Research Into Causes of Youth Violence Is Urged Education Week.November 25, 1992  Education Week funders (4) https://www.edweek.org/leadership/research-into-causes-of-youth-violence-is-urged/1992/11    
                     
  IRONIES:                  
  Anya Kamenetz   “If there's any better measure of how little we value education, it's that people are so eager to amplify the opinions of (male) journalists who have thought about it for all of 5 minutes.”   Tweet, Oct 31, 2022     https://twitter.com/anya1anya/status/1587061503492067332    
  Jill Barshey …responding to Kamenetz “I've noticed this phenomenon in other fields too. Some men are not held back by lack of knowledge or expertise and feel quite free to publicly air their off-the-cuff recommendations for fixing the world.”   Tweet, Oct 31, 2022     https://twitter.com/jillbarshay/status/1587063478824701953    
  Alexander Russo   “We need experienced, fearless journalists covering education, a lot more willingness to ask hard questions, to write what they know — not just what they’re told — and to break away from the pack.”   Tweet, Oct 27, 2022     https://twitter.com/1in5advocacy/status/1586016477890908161    
                     
                     
      Author cites (and accepts without checking) someone elses dismissive review              
      Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work              
      Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.              
                     
                     
      (1) [as of January, 2019] Ann & Hal Logan via The Denver Foundation*; Anna and John J. Sie Foundation*; Anna-Maria and Stephen Kellen Foundation; Awesome Without Borders; Azita Raji and Gary Syman; Ben & Lucy Ana Walton*; Better Education Institute, Inc.; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation;Brett Family Foundation; Brooke Brown via the Carson Foundation*; Buell Foundation; Carnegie Corporation of New York; Carson Foundation; Chan Zuckerberg Initiative; Charles H. Revson Foundation; Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation; Christopher Gabrieli; CME Group; COGEN Co-working; Community Foundation of Greater Memphis; Community Foundation of New Jersey; Democracy Fund; Donnell-Kay Foundation; Doug and Wendy Kreeger; EdChoice; EDU21C Foundation; Elaine Berman; Eli Lilly and Company Foundation, Inc.; Elizabeth Aybar Conti; Elizabeth Haas Edersheim (In Kind); Emma Bloomberg; Ford Foundation; Fry Foundation; Fund for Nonprofit News at The Miami Foundation; Gail Klapper; Gates Family Foundation; GEM Foundation; George T. Cameron Education Foundation; Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation partnership with the Knight Foundation; Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (In Kind);  J.R. Hyde III Family Foundation Donor Advised Fund of the Community Foundation of Greater Memphis;  Jim and Marsha McCormick; Kate Kennedy Reinemund and Jim Kennedy; Ken Hirsh; Kresge Foundation; La Vida Feliz Foundation; Lenfest Community Listening and Engagement Fund; Lilly Endowment Inc.; Maher Foundation; Margulf Foundation; Mark Zurack; Memphis Education Fund; Naomi and Michael Rosenfeld; Overdeck Family Foundation; Debra and Paul Appelbaum; Peter and Carmen L. Buck Foundation; Polk Bros. Foundation; Quinn Family Foundation; Ralph C. Wilson, Jr. Foundation; Richard M. Fairbanks Foundation, Inc.; Rick Smith; Rob Gary and Chris Watney; Rob Gary via the Piton Foundation*; Robert J. Yamartino and Maxine Sclar; Robert R. McCormick Foundation; Rose Community Foundation; Scott Gleason of O’Melveny & Myers (In Kind); Scott Pearl; Silicon Valley Community Foundation; Skift (In Kind); Spencer Foundation; Steans Family Foundation; Sue Lehmann; Susan Sawyers; Thalla-Marie and Heeten Choxi; The Assisi Foundation; The Anschutz Foundation; The Barton Family Foundation, a donor-advised fund of The Denver Foundation*; The Caswell Jin Foundation; The Colorado Health Foundation; The Colorado Trust; The Crown Family; The Denver Foundation; The Durst Organization (In Kind); The Glick Fund, a fund of the Central Indiana Community Foundation; The Indianapolis Foundation, a CICF affiliate; The John S. and James L. Knight Foundation; The Joyce Foundation; The McGregor Fund; The Moriah Fund; The Skillman Foundation; The Walton Family Foundation; Victoria Foundation; Walentas Foundation Ltd.; Washington Square Legal Services/NYU Business Transactions Clinic (In Kind); Wend Ventures; Widmeyer, A FinnPartners Company (In Kind); Will and Christina McConathy*; W.K. Kellogg Foundation; Yoobi (In Kind)  
      (2) [as of January, 2019] See  https://www.the74million.org/supporters/  "Partners" include:  Triad Foundation, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, Park Avenue Charitable Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation, Bloomberg Philanthropies, California Community Foundation, Doris & Donald Fisher Fund, Gen Next Foundation, Karsh Family Foundation, Jon Sackler, William E. Simon Foundation, Charles Strauch, Walton Family Foundation.  
      (3) [as of September, 2021] See https://hechingerreport.org/supporters/  Grants: American Student Assistance, Arnold Ventures, Ascendium, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Philanthropies, ECMC Foundation, Imaginable Futures, Lumina Foundation for Education, Overdeck Family Foundation, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, The Jack Kent Cooke Foundation, The Spencer Foundation, The W.K. Kellogg Foundation, The Wallace Foundation, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation; Sponsorships: Edwin Gould Foundation, SXSWEDU; Organizations: American Institutes for Research, Atlantic Media, Inc., The Fund for Nonprofit News at The Miami Foundation; Individual Donors: Editor-in-Chief’s Circle: Celeste Ford, Elizabeth Weatherford; Editors’ Circle: Robert King, Susan Sawyers, Kim and Joe Willen; Reporter’s Circle: Kiki Keating, David Garland, John Hechinger, Kathryn Parks, Joan Motyka, Fredric Leopold, Elizabeth Bass,Peter Blauner, Stephen Mongeau and Janice Ruell, Arthur Levine, Scott Widmeyer, Jeevan Padiyar, Christopher Mobley, Patricia Nadosy; Intern Circle: Soma Behr, Richard Melcher  
      (4) [as of January, 2019] Education Week funders [https://www.edweek.org/info/about/philanthropy.html]  "Our Funders": Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Carnegie Corporation of New York; Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation; Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust; Jack Kent Cooke Foundation; Joyce Foundation; Charles Stewart Mott Foundation; NoVo Foundation; Noyce Foundation; Raikes Foundation; Schott Foundation for Public Education; Wallace Foundation; Walton Family Foundation.  
      (5) Ascendium Education Group, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Funders for Adolescent Science Translation, The Joyce Foundation, The Kern Family Foundation, The Kresge Foundation, Lumina Foundation, Pritzker Children’s Initiative, The Spencer Foundation, The Wallace Foundation, The Walton Family Foundation, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, W.T. Grant Foundation, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, EGF Accelerator, American Institutes for Research, American Federation of Teachers, The Aspen Education & Society Program, National Education Association