HOME:  Dismissive Reviews in Education Policy Research              
  Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Funders Link1 Notes
1 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Given the topic’s importance, it is surprising that trends in SES-achievement gaps are so poorly documented." p.1 Dismissive Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764  
2 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "The empirical basis for these conclusions is limited." p.2 Dismissive Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764  
3 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "We add to this sparse literature by providing the first comprehensive analysis of long-run trends in SES-achievement gaps from psychometrically linked data sets." p.2 1stness Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764  
4 Susan Moore Johnson   "... This is very important and it's largly ignored by researchers and the public. There was very little research and writing about the context of teachers' work." Dismissive Where Teachers and Student Thrive, p.12 Harvard Magazine, Nov-Dec, 2019 Harvard University https://www.harvardmagazine.com/2019/11/susan-moore-education-policy  
5 Albert Cheng Michael B. Henderson, Paul E. Peterson, Martin R. West "Bleemer & Zafar (2018) broke new ground by testing this hypothesis experimentally on nationally representative samples of the adult population." p.4 1stness "Can Information Widen Socioeconomic Gaps in Postsecondary Aspirations? How College Costs and Returns Affect Parents’ Preferences for their Children" EdWorkingPaper No. 19-132, Annenberg, Brown University, September 2019 The survey experiment we draw on in the paper was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, and the William E. Simon Foundation.    
6 Albert Cheng Michael B. Henderson, Paul E. Peterson, Martin R. West "A novel feature of this experiment is the provision of economic information tailored to the respondents’ household income and geographic location." p.8 1stness "Can Information Widen Socioeconomic Gaps in Postsecondary Aspirations? How College Costs and Returns Affect Parents’ Preferences for their Children" EdWorkingPaper No. 19-132, Annenberg, Brown University, September 2019 The survey experiment we draw on in the paper was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, and the William E. Simon Foundation.    
7 Albert Cheng Michael B. Henderson, Paul E. Peterson, Martin R. West "Our experimental design seeks to improve upon prior studies that have tested how information about college costs and returns affects parental college aspirations. We highlight the contributions of three related experiments and our modifications to their research design." p.9 Dismissive "Can Information Widen Socioeconomic Gaps in Postsecondary Aspirations? How College Costs and Returns Affect Parents’ Preferences for their Children" EdWorkingPaper No. 19-132, Annenberg, Brown University, September 2019 The survey experiment we draw on in the paper was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, and the William E. Simon Foundation.    
8 Albert Cheng Michael B. Henderson, Paul E. Peterson, Martin R. West "Still our study is the first survey experiment to estimate effects on parental aspirations of customized information about costs and returns to further education,..." p.19 1stness "Can Information Widen Socioeconomic Gaps in Postsecondary Aspirations? How College Costs and Returns Affect Parents’ Preferences for their Children" EdWorkingPaper No. 19-132, Annenberg, Brown University, September 2019 The survey experiment we draw on in the paper was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, and the William E. Simon Foundation.    
9 Albert Cheng Michael B. Henderson, Paul E. Peterson, Martin R. West "[Our study] is the first to differentiate the student more prepared for college from the less prepared one. Such variables appear critical to include in theoretical models of college choice." 1stness "Can Information Widen Socioeconomic Gaps in Postsecondary Aspirations? How College Costs and Returns Affect Parents’ Preferences for their Children" EdWorkingPaper No. 19-132, Annenberg, Brown University, September 2019 The survey experiment we draw on in the paper was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation, and the William E. Simon Foundation.    
10 Paul E. Peterson Eric A. Hanushek, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Despite the topic's importance, surprisingly little scholarship has focused on long-term changes in the size of the achievement gap between students from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Our new research presented here, attempts to fill this void ..."", pp. 1-2 Dismissive The Achievement Gap Fails to Close: Half century of testing shows persistent divide between haves and have-nots Education Next, Summer 2019, 19(3) Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute https://www.educationnext.org/achievement-gap-fails-close-half-century-testing-shows-persistent-divide/  
11 Paul E. Peterson Eric A. Hanushek, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Despite firm documentation of a strong connection between socioeconomic status and student achievement, only two studies provide information on trends in the opportunity gap over time." p.3 Dismissive The Achievement Gap Fails to Close: Half century of testing shows persistent divide between haves and have-nots Education Next, Summer 2019, 19(3) Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute https://www.educationnext.org/achievement-gap-fails-close-half-century-testing-shows-persistent-divide/  
12 Elizabeth Sentren   "Despite special education and ELL students’ increasing prevalence, higher costs, and low academic achievement, little causal evidence exists for how to improve their educational trajectories." p.2 Dismissive The Impact of Targeted vs. General Education Investments: Evidence from Special Education and English Language Learners in Boston Charter Schools EdWorkingPaper No. 19-100, Annenberg, Brown University, June 2019 "This work was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship."    
13 Elizabeth Sentren   "This is also the first study to use random variation in special education classification." p.3 1stness The Impact of Targeted vs. General Education Investments: Evidence from Special Education and English Language Learners in Boston Charter Schools EdWorkingPaper No. 19-100, Annenberg, Brown University, June 2019 "This work was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship."    
14 Elizabeth Sentren   "However, little is known about the effect of these practices or charter schools on special education and ELL students specifically." p.3 Dismissive The Impact of Targeted vs. General Education Investments: Evidence from Special Education and English Language Learners in Boston Charter Schools EdWorkingPaper No. 19-100, Annenberg, Brown University, June 2019 "This work was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship."    
15 Elizabeth Sentren   "To the best of my knowledge, no causal evidence exists for special education classification removal." p.18 Dismissive The Impact of Targeted vs. General Education Investments: Evidence from Special Education and English Language Learners in Boston Charter Schools EdWorkingPaper No. 19-100, Annenberg, Brown University, June 2019 "This work was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship."    
16 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "Previous research on effective teachers has focused largely on student test score gains in math and reading in the year in which the teacher teaches the student. This research has shown that a high value-added teacher improves student short-term achievement (e.g., Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor, 2007; Goldhaber, 2007; Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain, 2005) and can have long-term impacts on college attendance, income and other adult outcomes (Chetty, Friedman, and Rockoff, 2014).", p.1 Dismissive Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
17 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "An emerging literature sheds light on teachers’ impact on students’ non-achievement outcomes (e.g., Gershenson, 2016; Jackson, 2018; Kraft, 2017).", p.1 Dismissive Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
18 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "The only study looking at non-achievement measures for high school teachers, Jackson (2018), estimates 9th gradeteachers’ effects on a composite measure of student GPA, on-time grade completion, suspensions and full-day attendance.", p.1 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
19 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb " ... we directly test whether teacher value-added to attendance has predictive power forstudent long-term outcomes above and beyond teachers’ impact on student test scores. Only Jackson (2018) has looked at longer-run outcomes.", p.3 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
20 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "The prior literature has hypothesized about the role of teachersin encouraging or discouraging absences, though very little empirical work has addressed this relationship directly.", p.6 Dismissive Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
21 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "The only study looking at non-achievement measures for high school teachers, Jackson (2018), estimated 9th grade teachers’ effects on a composite measure of student GPA, on-time grade completion, suspensions and full-day attendance in North Carolina.", p.7 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
22 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "An extension of Jackson (2018), our study is only the second study that is able to estimate teachers’effect on student non-test score outcomes and then link this measure to student long-run outcomes.", p.33 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
23 Jing Liu  Susanna Loeb "While other studies have assessed teachers’contribution to attendance and find a distinction between teachers who contribute to attendance and those that contribute to achievement, ours is the first along a number of dimensions." p.33–34 1stness Engaging Teachers: Measuring theImpact ofTeachersonStudent Attendance in Secondary School Annenberg / Brown University, EdWorkingPaper No. 19-01 " ... to thank financial support from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowshipand the Karr Family Fellowship at Stanford’s Center for Education Policy Analysis." http://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/EngagingTeachers_2ndSubmission%20%283%29.pdf  
24 EASEL Laboratory   "Despite widespread interest in social and emotional learning, there is no empirical evidence showing that such interventions are taking place, so this grantee will undertake the first large-scale study to determine what, if anything, is happening, to what degree, and how." Dismissive, 1stness [grant]  Harvard University, For Research To Establish Baseline Levels Of Deeper Learning Instruction In Public Schools Harvard Kennedy School & Ecological Approaches to Social Emotional Learning (EASEL) Laboratory at the Harvard Graduate School of Education William & Flora Hewlett Foundation https://hewlett.org/grants/harvard-university-for-research-to-establish-baseline-levels-of-deeper-learning-instruction-in-public-schools/  
25 Matt Barnum David Steiner [interviewee] "'To date, research on the curriculum effect has told us little about what makes a particular curriculum or genre of curriculum especially effective or not,” wrote Steiner." Dismissive New Studies Suggest Choice of Curriculum and Textbooks Can Make a Big Difference for Students The 74, May 1, 2017 The 74 funders (4) https://www.the74million.org/article/new-studies-suggest-choice-of-curriculum-and-textbooks-can-make-a-big-difference-for-students/ A simple search for academic journals with the word “curriculum” in their title unearths more than a dozen journals with around 6,000 articles dating back to 1968: Curriculum Inquiry, from 1968, >2,500 articles; Journal of Curriculum Studies, from 1968, >1,500 articles; Language, Culture, and Curriculum, from 1988, >450 articles; Curriculum Journal, from 1990, >700 articles; Curriculum and Teaching, from 1995, ~500 articles; Teachers and Curriculum, from 1997, >200 articles; Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, from 1998, >500 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, from 2004, >300 articles; Curriculum Matters, from 2005, ~100 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2007–2014, >50; International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, from 2008, >150 articles; and Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, from 2013, >300 articles.
All that represents just a small proportion of research articles on curriculum that one would find if one searched all of the many thousands of education journals dating back a century, as well as the “grey literature” of graduate student theses, program evaluations, and governmental reports. A search on “curriculum” in ERIC gets 215,139 hits, in Google Scholar, 3,440,000 hits. To believe the dismissive review, one must believe that none among these many thousands of sources conducted a curricular evaluation or comparison. 
26 Matt Barnum David Steiner [interviewee] "'The paucity of evidence upon which sound instructional, purchasing, and policy decisions can be made is a matter of deep concern and urgent need,' wrote Steiner." Dismissive New Studies Suggest Choice of Curriculum and Textbooks Can Make a Big Difference for Students The 74, May 1, 2017 The 74 funders (4) https://www.the74million.org/article/new-studies-suggest-choice-of-curriculum-and-textbooks-can-make-a-big-difference-for-students/ A simple search for academic journals with the word “curriculum” in their title unearths more than a dozen journals with around 6,000 articles dating back to 1968: Curriculum Inquiry, from 1968, >2,500 articles; Journal of Curriculum Studies, from 1968, >1,500 articles; Language, Culture, and Curriculum, from 1988, >450 articles; Curriculum Journal, from 1990, >700 articles; Curriculum and Teaching, from 1995, ~500 articles; Teachers and Curriculum, from 1997, >200 articles; Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, from 1998, >500 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, from 2004, >300 articles; Curriculum Matters, from 2005, ~100 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2007–2014, >50; International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, from 2008, >150 articles; and Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, from 2013, >300 articles.
All that represents just a small proportion of research articles on curriculum that one would find if one searched all of the many thousands of education journals dating back a century, as well as the “grey literature” of graduate student theses, program evaluations, and governmental reports. A search on “curriculum” in ERIC gets 215,139 hits, in Google Scholar, 3,440,000 hits. To believe the dismissive review, one must believe that none among these many thousands of sources conducted a curricular evaluation or comparison. 
27 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We provide the first evidence that cumulative heat exposure inhibits cognitive skill development and that school air conditioning can mitigate this effect." 1stness Heat and Learning, abstract National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
28 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "New data providing the first measures of school-level air conditioning penetration across the US suggest such infrastructure almost entirely offsets these effects." 1stness Heat and Learning, abstract National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
29 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "A fact less well-established is that hotter countries also tend to score lower on internationally comparable measures of academic achievement." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 1 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
30 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "To show this, we construct the first nationwide measures of school-level air conditioning penetration in the United States by surveying students and guidance counselors across the country about heat-related conditions in their schools." 1stness Heat and Learning, 3 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
31 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "These findings contribute to a growing literature on the impact of heat on individual outcomes and cognition more specifically …" Dismissive Heat and Learning, 3 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
32 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We believe our study is the first to precisely estimate the direct effect of cumulative heat exposure on learning … " 1stness Heat and Learning, 3 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
33 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "… we are the first to empirically assess the effect of school air conditioning on learning, and to document heterogeneity by socioeconomic status, …" 1stness Heat and Learning, 4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
34 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "The only other paper that precisely identifies the impact of cumulative heat exposure on human capital accumulation in a developed country context is Isen et al. (2017), which focuses on in utero exposure and thus identifies a very different channel from the learning channel we study here." Denigrating Heat and Learning, 4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
35 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Our analysis of the mitigating effects of air conditioning is also one of the first to provide evidence on the efficacy of specific investments in educational infrastructure." 1stness Heat and Learning, 4 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
36 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Ours is the first study of which we are aware to study the effectiveness of adaptation in the context of human capital accumulation." 1stness Heat and Learning, 5 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
37 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "No comprehensive national data set of school calendars covering this time period exists, so we assign to each student a likely school start and end date based on the calendar of the largest school district in that student’s state, as seen in Figure A.1." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 8 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
38 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Previous research suggests that such pollutants can affect student absenteeism and performance, at least in the short run (Currie et al., 2009; Ebenstein et al., 2016), though there is relatively less evidence regarding the impact of longer-term exposures." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 10 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
39 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We provide the first evidence that cumulative heat exposure inhibits cognitive skill development and that school air conditioning can mitigate this effect." 1stness Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
40 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "These findings contribute to a growing literature on the impact of heat on individual outcomes by showing that cumulative heat exposure generates long-term reductions in human capital accumulation." Dismissive Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
41 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "We are also the first to isolate the impact of one specific form of school infrastructure investment, namely school air conditioning." 1stness Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
42 Joshua Goodman Michael Hurwitz, Jisung Park, Jonathan Smith,  "Ours is the first study of which we are aware to estimate the effectiveness of such adaptation in the context of human capital accumulation, …" 1stness Heat and Learning, 24 National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper #24639, May 2018  (1) NBER funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/joshuagoodman/files/w24639.pdf  
43 Benjamin L. Castleman Bridget Terry Long, Zachary Mabel "Previous work investigating the impact of financial aid on STEM college outcomes is very limited, has found mixed results, and may not generalize to non-targeted, need-based aid programs like the FSAG. Two studies of which we are aware..." Denigrating Can Financial Aid Help to Address the Growing Need for STEM Education? The Effects of Need-Based Grants on the Completion of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Courses and Degrees Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 37, No. 1, 136–166 (2018), p.139   https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/pam.22039  
44 Benjamin L. Castleman Bridget Terry Long, Zachary Mabel "Other studies have examined the effects of non-targeted aid programs on STEM attainment, but this literature is limited to investigations of merit-based scholarship programs and the evidence to date is also inconclusive." Denigrating Can Financial Aid Help to Address the Growing Need for STEM Education? The Effects of Need-Based Grants on the Completion of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Courses and Degrees Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 37, No. 1, 136–166 (2018), p.139   https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/pam.22039  
45 Benjamin L. Castleman Bridget Terry Long, Zachary Mabel "Ours is the first paper of which we are aware that examines the impact of eligibility for a non-targeted, need-based grant at the end of high school on whether students accumulate STEM credits and earn STEM degrees." 1stness Can Financial Aid Help to Address the Growing Need for STEM Education? The Effects of Need-Based Grants on the Completion of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Courses and Degrees Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 37, No. 1, 136–166 (2018), p.140   https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/pam.22039  
46 Benjamin L. Castleman Bridget Terry Long, Zachary Mabel "Despite a wide array of policy initiatives at the institutional, state, and federal levels, including financial aid for students pursuing STEM fields, there has been little research investigating the causal impact of grant aid on students’ credit accumulation and degree attainment in STEM fields." Dismissive Can Financial Aid Help to Address the Growing Need for STEM Education? The Effects of Need-Based Grants on the Completion of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Courses and Degrees Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 37, No. 1, 136–166 (2018), pp.161–162   https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/pam.22039  
47 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson "Despite this rapid growth in the charter sector, little is known about the views of parents who are making use of these schools." Dismissive What do parents think of their children's schools? Education Next, Spring 2017 / Vol. 17, No. 2 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/what-do-parents-think-of-childrens-schools-ednext-private-district-charter/ Parents and other adults are typically reached.through public opinion polls. See, for example:  https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920 ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm .  Among the hundreds of polls conducted between 1958 and 2008, a majority of them included parents in particular or adults in general.
48 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson "To our knowledge, this study, together with a companion investigation by Albert Cheng and Paul E. Peterson (see “How Satisfied are Parents with Their Children’s Schools?” features, Spring 2017), are the first to report results from nationally representative surveys of parents in these three sectors." 1stness What do parents think of their children's schools? Education Next, Spring 2017 / Vol. 17, No. 2 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/what-do-parents-think-of-childrens-schools-ednext-private-district-charter/  
49 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson "As mentioned, there is no published comparison of parental perceptions of school life across the charter, district, and private sectors nationwide." Dismissive What do parents think of their children's schools? Education Next, Spring 2017 / Vol. 17, No. 2 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/what-do-parents-think-of-childrens-schools-ednext-private-district-charter/  
50 David Steiner   "Research comparing one curriculum to another is very rare and, therefore, not usually actionable." Dismissive Curriculum Research: What We Know and Where We Need to Go March 2017, p.1 (3) StandardsWork funders https://standardswork.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/sw-curriculum-research-report-fnl.pdf A simple search for academic journals with the word “curriculum” in their title unearths more than a dozen journals with around 6,000 articles dating back to 1968: Curriculum Inquiry, from 1968, >2,500 articles; Journal of Curriculum Studies, from 1968, >1,500 articles; Language, Culture, and Curriculum, from 1988, >450 articles; Curriculum Journal, from 1990, >700 articles; Curriculum and Teaching, from 1995, ~500 articles; Teachers and Curriculum, from 1997, >200 articles; Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, from 1998, >500 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, from 2004, >300 articles; Curriculum Matters, from 2005, ~100 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2007–2014, >50; International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, from 2008, >150 articles; and Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, from 2013, >300 articles.
All that represents just a small proportion of research articles on curriculum that one would find if one searched all of the many thousands of education journals dating back a century, as well as the “grey literature” of graduate student theses, program evaluations, and governmental reports. A search on “curriculum” in ERIC gets 215,139 hits, in Google Scholar, 3,440,000 hits. To believe the dismissive review, one must believe that none among these many thousands of sources conducted a curricular evaluation or comparison. 
51 David Steiner   "The paucity of evidence upon which sound instructional, purchasing, and policy decisions can be made is a matter of deep concern and urgent need." Dismissive Curriculum Research: What We Know and Where We Need to Go March 2017, p.1 (3) StandardsWork funders https://standardswork.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/sw-curriculum-research-report-fnl.pdf A simple search for academic journals with the word “curriculum” in their title unearths more than a dozen journals with around 6,000 articles dating back to 1968: Curriculum Inquiry, from 1968, >2,500 articles; Journal of Curriculum Studies, from 1968, >1,500 articles; Language, Culture, and Curriculum, from 1988, >450 articles; Curriculum Journal, from 1990, >700 articles; Curriculum and Teaching, from 1995, ~500 articles; Teachers and Curriculum, from 1997, >200 articles; Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, from 1998, >500 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, from 2004, >300 articles; Curriculum Matters, from 2005, ~100 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2007–2014, >50; International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, from 2008, >150 articles; and Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, from 2013, >300 articles.
All that represents just a small proportion of research articles on curriculum that one would find if one searched all of the many thousands of education journals dating back a century, as well as the “grey literature” of graduate student theses, program evaluations, and governmental reports. A search on “curriculum” in ERIC gets 215,139 hits, in Google Scholar, 3,440,000 hits. To believe the dismissive review, one must believe that none among these many thousands of sources conducted a curricular evaluation or comparison. 
52 David Steiner   "To date, research on the curriculum effect has told us little about what makes a particular curriculum or genre of curriculum especially effective or not. We encounter only occasional, anecdotal observations on this in the research. Denigrating Curriculum Research: What We Know and Where We Need to Go March 2017, p.7 (3) StandardsWork funders https://standardswork.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/sw-curriculum-research-report-fnl.pdf A simple search for academic journals with the word “curriculum” in their title unearths more than a dozen journals with around 6,000 articles dating back to 1968: Curriculum Inquiry, from 1968, >2,500 articles; Journal of Curriculum Studies, from 1968, >1,500 articles; Language, Culture, and Curriculum, from 1988, >450 articles; Curriculum Journal, from 1990, >700 articles; Curriculum and Teaching, from 1995, ~500 articles; Teachers and Curriculum, from 1997, >200 articles; Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, from 1998, >500 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, from 2004, >300 articles; Curriculum Matters, from 2005, ~100 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2007–2014, >50; International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, from 2008, >150 articles; and Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, from 2013, >300 articles.
All that represents just a small proportion of research articles on curriculum that one would find if one searched all of the many thousands of education journals dating back a century, as well as the “grey literature” of graduate student theses, program evaluations, and governmental reports. A search on “curriculum” in ERIC gets 215,139 hits, in Google Scholar, 3,440,000 hits. To believe the dismissive review, one must believe that none among these many thousands of sources conducted a curricular evaluation or comparison. 
53 David Steiner   "The rapid growth of online, personalized learning platforms will likely change classroom instruction further. As of yet, there exists no high-quality research on the impact of such platforms…" Denigrating Curriculum Research: What We Know and Where We Need to Go March 2017, p.6 (3) StandardsWork funders https://standardswork.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/sw-curriculum-research-report-fnl.pdf A simple search for academic journals with the word “curriculum” in their title unearths more than a dozen journals with around 6,000 articles dating back to 1968: Curriculum Inquiry, from 1968, >2,500 articles; Journal of Curriculum Studies, from 1968, >1,500 articles; Language, Culture, and Curriculum, from 1988, >450 articles; Curriculum Journal, from 1990, >700 articles; Curriculum and Teaching, from 1995, ~500 articles; Teachers and Curriculum, from 1997, >200 articles; Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, from 1998, >500 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, from 2004, >300 articles; Curriculum Matters, from 2005, ~100 articles; Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 2007–2014, >50; International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, from 2008, >150 articles; and Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, from 2013, >300 articles.
All that represents just a small proportion of research articles on curriculum that one would find if one searched all of the many thousands of education journals dating back a century, as well as the “grey literature” of graduate student theses, program evaluations, and governmental reports. A search on “curriculum” in ERIC gets 215,139 hits, in Google Scholar, 3,440,000 hits. To believe the dismissive review, one must believe that none among these many thousands of sources conducted a curricular evaluation or comparison. 
54 Steinberg, Matthew P. Lascoe, Johanna "In general, we find that the evidence for critiques of exclusionary discipline and in support of alternative strategies is relatively thin." Dismissive What Do We Know About School Discipline Reform?, p.3 Education Next, Winter 2017 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute https://www.educationnext.org/what-do-we-know-about-school-discipline-reform-suspensions-expulsions/ 48 endnotes:  2010+ 7+11+10+9 ; 2000-2009 3+3+4 ; all other years 0. Likely, the only literature search consisted of a simple Internet search on one or a few keywords. 
55 Steinberg, Matthew P. Lascoe, Johanna "Across the country, disciplinary programs and policies are trending away from exclusionary practices and toward a variety of alternatives, with the endorsement of federal and state governments. Yet the evidence base about the harm caused by suspensions, and the potential benefits of other approaches, is surprisingly thin. Clearly, there is a great need for rigorous evaluation research, which should focus both on the impact of school discipline reforms and on their potential unintended consequences." Dismissive, Denigrating What Do We Know About School Discipline Reform?, pp.17-18 Education Next, Winter 2017 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute https://www.educationnext.org/what-do-we-know-about-school-discipline-reform-suspensions-expulsions/ 48 endnotes:  2010+ 7+11+10+9 ; 2000-2009 3+3+4 ; all other years 0. Likely, the only literature search consisted of a simple Internet search on one or a few keywords. 
56 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "In fact, we know very little about the impact of test-based accountability on students’ later success." Dismissive When does accountability work? Education Next, WINTER 2016 / VOL. 16, NO. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/when-does-accountability-work-texas-system/  
57 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "In this study, we present the first evidence of how accountability pressure on schools influences students’ long-term outcomes." 1stness When does accountability work? Education Next, WINTER 2016 / VOL. 16, NO. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/when-does-accountability-work-texas-system/  
58 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "What we don’t know is: Do these improvements on high-stakes tests represent real learning gains? " Dismissive When does accountability work? Education Next, WINTER 2016 / VOL. 16, NO. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/when-does-accountability-work-texas-system/  
59 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "Our study overcomes the limits of short-term analysis by asking: when schools face accountability pressure, do their efforts to raise test scores generate improvements in higher education attainment, earnings, and other long-term outcomes?" Denigrating When does accountability work? Education Next, WINTER 2016 / VOL. 16, NO. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/when-does-accountability-work-texas-system/  
60 David J. Deming David Figlio "… differences in test scores are capitalized into housing markets. In an early study of this effect, Black (1999) …" Dismissive Accountability in US Education: Applying Lessons from K–12 Experience to Higher Education Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 30, Number 3—Summer 2016—Pages 33–56      
61 David J. Deming David Figlio "We are aware of only one study that investigates the impact of K-12 school accountability on long-run outcomes." Dismissive Accountability in US Education: Applying Lessons from K–12 Experience to Higher Education Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 30, Number 3—Summer 2016—Pages 33–56      
62 David J. Deming David Figlio "… we are unaware of well-identified studies of the consequences of independent accreditation in the higher education sector." Dismissive, Denigrating Accountability in US Education: Applying Lessons from K–12 Experience to Higher Education Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 30, Number 3—Summer 2016—Pages 33–56      
63 Samuel Barrows   "Governments are increasingly publishing information about the performance of the services they provide, in part to help citizens hold their elected representatives accountable for government service outcomes.  Yet there is little evidence concerning the influence of information about government service performance on voter behavior.  This paper..." Dismissive Performance Information and Retrospective Voting: Evidence from a School Accountability Regime, Abstract Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series Harvard University grant from the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social Policy https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG15_03.pdf  
64 Samuel Barrows   "We currently know little, however, about the degree to which citizens hold their elected representatives accountable for information about government service performance." Dismissive Performance Information and Retrospective Voting: Evidence from a School Accountability Regime, p.1 Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series Harvard University grant from the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social Policy https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG15_03.pdf  
65 Samuel Barrows   "This paper presents the first study to test whether publicly reported information about government service performance has a causal effect on support for incumbent politicians." 1stness Performance Information and Retrospective Voting: Evidence from a School Accountability Regime, p.2 Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series Harvard University grant from the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social Policy https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG15_03.pdf  
66 Samuel Barrows   "Studies of retrospective voting, however, have paid little attention to the effects of information about government service performance on electoral outcomes." Denigrating Performance Information and Retrospective Voting: Evidence from a School Accountability Regime, p.2 Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series Harvard University grant from the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social Policy https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG15_03.pdf  
67 Samuel Barrows   "Studies  of  the  relationship  between  school  performance  and  electoral  outcomes  have  not, however, examined the effect of publicly reported information about school performance on incumbent support." Denigrating Performance Information and Retrospective Voting: Evidence from a School Accountability Regime, pp.4–5 Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series Harvard University grant from the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social Policy https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG15_03.pdf  
68 Samuel Barrows   "This paper reports, to my knowledge, the first evidence that the publication of information about government service performance affects electoral support for officials responsible for government service delivery." 1stness Performance Information and Retrospective Voting: Evidence from a School Accountability Regime, p.18 Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series Harvard University grant from the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social Policy https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG15_03.pdf  
69 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "However, more than a decade after the passage of NCLB, we know very little about the impact of test-based accountability on students’ long-run life chances. Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.2 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/ddeming/files/w19444.pdf.    &   http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444  
70 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "Previous work has found large gains on high-stakes tests, with some evidence of smaller gains on low-stakes exams that is inconsistent across grades and subjects (e.g. Koretz and Barron 1998, Linn 2000, Klein et al. 2000, Carnoy and Loeb 2002, Hanushek and Raymond 2005, Jacob 2005, Wong, Cook and Steiner 2009, Dee and Jacob 2010, Reback, Rockoff and Schwartz 2011). Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.2 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/ddeming/files/w19444.pdf.    &   http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444 See, for example, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0193841X19865628#abstract & https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920 ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm    As for the Koretz-inspired high- to low-stakes comparison studies, variation in test administrations are completely ignored, as if they could not possibly be relevant, and variation in test content are mostly wished away, as if it did not matter, either. They make apples to oranges comparisons. Meanwhile, the large relevant experimental research literature is declared nonexistent.
71 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "...Previous research has focused on measuring performance on low-stakes exams." Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.4 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/ddeming/files/w19444.pdf.    &   http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444 See, for example, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0193841X19865628#abstract & https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920 ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm    As for the Koretz-inspired high- to low-stakes comparison studies, variation in test administrations are completely ignored, as if they could not possibly be relevant, and variation in test content are mostly wished away, as if it did not matter, either. They make apples to oranges comparisons. Meanwhile, the large relevant experimental research literature is declared nonexistent.
72 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "The literature on school accountability has focused on low-stakes tests, in an attempt to measure whether gains on high-stakes exams represent generalizable gains in student learning. Recent studies of accountability in multiple states have found achievement gains across subjects and grades on low-stakes exams (Ladd 1999, Carnoy and Loeb 2002, Greene and Winters 2003, Hanushek and Raymond 2005, Figlio and Rouse 2006, Chiang 2009, Dee and Jacob 2010, Wong, Cook and Steiner 2011, Allen and Burgess 2012)." Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.6 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/ddeming/files/w19444.pdf.    &   http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444 See, for example, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0193841X19865628#abstract & https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920 ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm    As for the Koretz-inspired high- to low-stakes comparison studies, variation in test administrations are completely ignored, as if they could not possibly be relevant, and variation in test content are mostly wished away, as if it did not matter, either. They make apples to oranges comparisons. Meanwhile, the large relevant experimental research literature is declared nonexistent.
73 David J. Deming  Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "To our knowledge, only two studies look at the long-term impact of school accountability on postsecondary outcomes. Dismissive SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY, POSTSECONDARY ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS, p.7 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 19444, September 2013 NBER Funders https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/ddeming/files/w19444.pdf.    &   http://www.nber.org/papers/w19444  
74 Randall Reback Jonah Rockoff, Heather L. Schwartz "While the literature on school accountability is substantial, there exists no nationwide study of the strong short-term incentives NCLB imposes for schools on the margin of failing AYP."   1stness Under Pressure: Job Security, Resource Allocation, and Productivity in Schools Under NCLB, February 2013, Abstract Under Pressure: Job Security, Resource Allocation, and Productivity in Schools Under NCLB "This research project was made possible by funding from the Institute for Education Sciences and the Spencer Foundation, as well as seed grants from the Columbia University Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy and Barnard College, and support from the Paul Milstein Center for Real Estate at Columbia Business School." http://www.columbia.edu/%7Err2165/pdfs/reback_rockoff_schwartz_nclb_FEB_2013.pdf  
75 Randall Reback Jonah Rockoff, Heather L. Schwartz "We assemble the first comprehensive, national school-level dataset containing detailed performance measures used to calculate AYP and demonstrate that idiosyncrasies in state policies create numerous cases where schools near the margin for satisfying their own state’s AYP requirements would have almost certainly failed or almost certainly made AYP if they were located in other states." 1stness Under Pressure: Job Security, Resource Allocation, and Productivity in Schools Under NCLB, February 2013, Abstract Under Pressure: Job Security, Resource Allocation, and Productivity in Schools Under NCLB "This research project was made possible by funding from the Institute for Education Sciences and the Spencer Foundation, as well as seed grants from the Columbia University Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy and Barnard College, and support from the Paul Milstein Center for Real Estate at Columbia Business School." http://www.columbia.edu/%7Err2165/pdfs/reback_rockoff_schwartz_nclb_FEB_2013.pdf  
76 Michael B. Henderson Philipp Lergetporer, Paul E. Peterson, Katharina Werner, Martin R. West, Ludger Woessmann "What  do  citizens  of  the  United  States  and  Germany  think  about  their schools and school policies? This paper offers the first broad comparison of public thinking on education in the two countries." 1stness Is Seeing Believing? How Americans and Germans Think about their Schools, Abstract Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series Financial support by the Leibniz Association (SAW-2012-ifo-3) is gratefully acknowledged https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG15_02.pdf  
77 Michael B. Henderson Philipp Lergetporer, Paul E. Peterson, Katharina Werner, Martin R. West, Ludger Woessmann " In this paper we offer the first broad comparison of public thinking on education in the two largest industrialized nations in the western world." 1stness Is Seeing Believing? How Americans and Germans Think about their Schools, p.1 Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series Financial support by the Leibniz Association (SAW-2012-ifo-3) is gratefully acknowledged https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG15_02.pdf  
78 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "…more than a decade after NCLB, we know very little about the impact of test-based accountability on students' long-run life chances.", p.2 Dismissive School accountabiity, postsecondary attainment, and earnings Harvard Graduate School of Education and the National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2015  (1) NBER funders    
79 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "The literature on school accountability has focused on low-stakes tests…", p.7 Dismissive School accountabiity, postsecondary attainment, and earnings Harvard Graduate School of Education and the National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2015  (1) NBER funders    
80 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "To our knowledge, only two studies look at the long-term impact of school accountability on postsecondary outcomes.", p.8 Dismissive School accountabiity, postsecondary attainment, and earnings Harvard Graduate School of Education and the National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2015  (1) NBER funders    
81 Elizabeth Davidson Randall Reback, Jonah Rockoff "...this paper is the first national study examining which schools failed during the early years of NCLB and which performance targets they failed to meet." 1stness
Fifty Ways to Leave a Child Behind: Idiosyncrasies and Discrepancies in States’ Implementation of NCLB
Educational Researcher, August 1, 2015   https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/0013189x15601426  
82 Randall Reback Jonah Rockoff, Heather L. Schwartz "We conduct the first nationwide study of incentives under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, which requires states to punish schools failing to meet target passing rates on students' standardized exams." 1stness Under Pressure: Job Security, Resource Allocation, and Productivity in Schools under No Child Left Behind, Abstract American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, vol. 6, no. 3, August 2014 (pp. 207-41)   https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/pol.6.3.207  
83 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold "Differences in teacher quality are commonly cited as a key determinant of
the huge international student performance gaps. However, convincing
evidence on this relationship is still lacking
, in part because it is unclear
how to measure teacher quality consistently across countries." Abstract
Denigrating The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher
cognitive skills and student performance
Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-06 Harvard Kennedy School https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG14_06_Hanushek_Piopiunik_Wiederhold.pdf  
84 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold "But less considered is how the overall skills of a nation feed back into the skills of teachers. This paper investigates…" p.1 Dismissive The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher
cognitive skills and student performance
Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-06 Harvard Kennedy School https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG14_06_Hanushek_Piopiunik_Wiederhold.pdf  
85 Jal Mehta   "While there has been considerable work on the consequences of external accountability for how much control teachers have over their work (Ingersoll, 2003; McNeil, 1986, 2000), there has been much less investigation of whether teachers’ incomplete professionalization is an important factor in shaping external calls for accountability." p.882 Dismissive When Professions Shape Politics: The Case of Accountability in K-12 and Higher Education Educational Policy 2014, Vol. 28(6) 881–915      
86 Jal Mehta   "Previous work on the politics of education has largely ignored the role of professional authority and power in favor of more conventional political science explanations such as the strategic actions of rational actors and changing regimes (McGuinn, 2006), interest group pressures (Mawhinney & Lugg, 2001), partisan cleavages (Spring, 2002), and historical institutionalism (Manna, 2006)." p.883 Dismissive When Professions Shape Politics: The Case of Accountability in K-12 and Higher Education Educational Policy 2014, Vol. 28(6) 881–915      
87 Jal Mehta   "... organizational sociologists have considered the semiprofessional status (Etzioni, 1969; Lortie, 1975) of teachers in exploring the control that teachers have over their work (Ingersoll, 2003; Locke, 2001; McNeil, 1986, 2000), but there has been much less investigation of whether teachers’ professional status has been an important factor in shaping external calls for reform." Dismissive When Professions Shape Politics: The Case of Accountability in K-12 and Higher Education Educational Policy 2014, Vol. 28(6) 881–915      
88 Jal Mehta   "Of particular interest here is the relationship between external regulatory actors and the professional standing of different fields, which is an underexplored theme in both politics of education and in the sociology of the professions." p.884 Dismissive When Professions Shape Politics: The Case of Accountability in K-12 and Higher Education Educational Policy 2014, Vol. 28(6) 881–915      
89 Jal Mehta   "Political scientists have mostly seen teachers as a powerful interest group (Mahwinney & Lugg, 2001; Moe, 2011) but have had some trouble accounting for the ways in which general interest accountability politics such as No Child Left Behind have triumphed over the objections of concentrated interests like teachers unions." p.884 Denigrating When Professions Shape Politics: The Case of Accountability in K-12 and Higher Education Educational Policy 2014, Vol. 28(6) 881–915      
90 Jal Mehta   "Meanwhile, sociologists have explored the ways in which accountability policies have diminished teachers’ ability to exercise discretion on the ground (McNeil, 1986, 2000) but have not explored the opposite link—the way in which the weak professional standing of teaching inhibits its ability to advocate effectively politically." p.884 Dismissive When Professions Shape Politics: The Case of Accountability in K-12 and Higher Education Educational Policy 2014, Vol. 28(6) 881–915      
91 Thomas J. Kane   "Student surveys are ubiquitous in higher education as a means of evaluating teaching. (In fact, they are often the only source of feedback on classroom instruction for college professors.) But, until recently, they were quite rare in K-12 education." Dismissive Ask the students Brown Center Chalkboard, Brookimgs Institution, April 10, 2013 (2) Brookings Institution funders    
92 C. Kirabo Jackson   "This paper provides the first estimates of worker-firm match quality using output data as opposed to inferring productivity from wages or employment durations." 1stness Match Quality, Worker Productivity, and Worker Mobility: Direct Evidence From Teachers NBER Working Paper No. 15990 & The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(4), pages 1096-1116, October.  (1) NBER funders https://www.nber.org/papers/w15990  
93 Thomas J. Kane   “This is as yet a ‘potential superpower’ of classroom observations, since there’s not a lot of evidence that providing such feedback leads to improved student outcomes.” 6th paragraph under “Classroom Practice” subhead Dismissive Capturing the Dimensions of Effective Teaching Education Next, Fall 2012, Vol. 12, No. 4 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/capturing-the-dimensions-of-effective-teaching/  
94 Joshua Goodman   "Given the immense amount of time and money being spent on such efforts, it is surprising how little evidence policymakers and educators have on the impact of such standards on student achievement.  Dismissive Gold Standards?: State Standards Reform and Student Achievement Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 12-05 Harvard Kennedy School https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG12-05_Goodman.pdf  
95 Joshua Goodman   "Research is beginning to shed light on the impact of curriculum on student achievement and later life outcomes (Goodman 2012, Cortes and Nomi 2012).  Little is known, however, about how the quality of written standards translates into improvements in curriculum, pedagogy and student achievement." Dismissive Gold Standards?: State Standards Reform and Student Achievement Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 12-05 Harvard Kennedy School https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG12-05_Goodman.pdf  
96 David J. Deming   "Yet little research has been conducted to determine the effect of school quality on crime." Dismissive Does school choice reduce crime? Education Next, Spring 2012 / VOL. 12, NO. 2  Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/does-school-choice-reduce-crime/  
97 Thomas J. Kane Angrist, Dynarski, Pathak, Walters “Although a burgeoning literature has used lotteries to evaluate charter schools, as far as we know, ours is the first study to use lotteries to evaluate a KIPP school.” p. 2 1stness Who Benefits from KIPP? IZA [Institute for the Study of Labor] DP No. 5690, May 2011   http://economics.mit.edu/files/6965  
98 Jonah E. Rockoff Benjamin B. Lockwood "To provide more rigorous evidence on the effect of middle schools on student achievement, we…" Denigrating Stuck in the middle: How and why middle schools harm student achievement Education Next, Fall 2010 / Vol. 10, No. 4 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/stuck-in-the-middle/  
99 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes. This project addresses this critical issue..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009  (1) NBER funders   For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
100 E. P. Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...approximately one-third of entering postsecondary students require remedial or developmental work before entering college-level courses. However, little is known about the causal impact of remediation on student outcomes. ...This project..." Dismissive Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325, 2009  (1) NBER funders   For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
101 Thomas J. Kane Douglas O. Staiger “Although many analysts have used non-experimental data to estimate teacher effects  …, we were able to identify only one previous study using random assignment to estimate the variation in teacher effects.” p. 4 Dismissive Estimating Teacher Impacts on Student Achievement: An Experimental Evaluation NBER Working Paper 14607, December 2008 This analysis was supported by the Spencer Foundation.  Initial data collection was supported by a grant from the National Board on Professional Teaching Standards to the Urban Education Partnership in Los Angeles. &  (1) NBER funders www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14607.pdf  
102 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “Research on the relationship between teachers' characteristics and teacher effectiveness has been underway for over a century, yet little progress has been made in linking teacher quality with factors observable at the time of hire.” p. 1 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support. & (1) NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf  
103 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “However, most research on teacher effectiveness has examined a relatively small set of teacher characteristics, such as graduate education and certification . . . researchers’ lack of success in predicting new teacher performance may be driven by a narrow focus on commonly available data.” p. 1 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  & (1) NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf  
104 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “While many studies have been conducted, few definitive conclusions have been made. One reason has been the widespread but controversial use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. …” p. 8 Denigrating Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  & (1) NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf  
105 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “However, there is little work examining the relationship between self-efficacy and student learning.” p. 9 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  & (1) NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf  
106 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “In addition to being one of the first studies of teacher value-added and its correlation with principal evaluations, this paper also finds a significant positive relationship between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and student achievement growth.” p. 10 1stness Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  & (1) NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf  
107 Thomas J. Kane Jonah Rockoff, Brian A. Jacob, Douglas O. Staiger “While use of commercial selection instruments has grown considerably, there is little systematic evidence on the power of these instruments for predicting teacher effectiveness.” p. 11 Dismissive Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? NBER Working Paper 14485, November 2008 We are grateful to the Spencer Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation for generous financial support.  & (1) NBER funders http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/w14485.pdf  
108 C. Kirabo Jackson   "Cash incentives for high school students to perform better in school are growing in popularity, but we understand very little about them." Dismissive Cash for test scores: The impact of the Texas Advanced Placement incentive Program Education Next, Fall 2008 / Vol. 8, No. 4 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/cash-for-test-scores/  
109 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate and the thousands of under prepared students who enter college each year, there is almost no research on the impact of remediation on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, abstract "Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research." & (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369 For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."  
110 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "However, despite the proliferation of remediation, little is known about its effects on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.1 "Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research." & (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369 For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
111 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Despite the growing debate on remediation and the thousands of underprepared students who enter the nation’s higher education institutions each year, little is known about the effects of remediation on student outcomes." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.2 "Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research." & (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369 For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
112 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "After assessing the literature on remediation, the Ohio Board of Regents (2001) concluded that there were no benchmarks by which to judge the success of higher education's remediation efforts. Likewise, two reviews of the literature on remedial and developmental education found the bulk of studies to be seriously flawed methodologically (O’Hear and MacDonald, 1995; Boylan and Saxon, 1999). ... As noted by Phipps (1998), “conjecture and criticism have filled the void created by the lack of basic information.” Denigrating SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, pp.2-3 "Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research." & (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369 For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
113 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "The lack of analysis on the effects of remediation is partly due to a lack of data." Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, pp.2-3 "Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research." & (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369 For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
114 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "...this paper addresses a hole in the literature and discusses how higher education attempts to assimilate under prepared students and train them for future college-level work and labor market success. " Dismissive SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.3 "Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research." & (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369 For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
115 Eric Bettinger Bridget T. Long "Additionally, given the system-wide nature of the data, we are able to distinguish between students who withdraw from school altogether and those who transfer to any other Ohio public colleges, an improvement over the information available in most studies." Denigrating SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT: THE EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION ON STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES NBER Working Paper 10369, March 2004, p.4 "Lumina Foundation provided crucial funding to aid in this research." & (1) NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w10369 For example, from Table 2, Chapter 3 of Correcting Fallacies, "Developmental (i.e., remedial) education researchers have conducted many studies to determine what works best to keep students from failing in their “courses of last resort,” after which there are no alternatives.  Researchers have included Boylan, Roueche, McCabe, Wheeler, Kulik, Bonham, Claxton, Bliss, Schonecker, Chen, Chang, and Kirk."
116 Thomas J. Kane Cecelia Elena Rouse “Yet despite the increasing interest in community colleges among both students and policymakers as a potential source of education for Workers [sic] seeking to upgrade their skills, relatively little is known about them.” p. 63 Dismissive The Community College: Educating Students at the Margin between College and Work Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 1, Winter, 1999 [with Cecilia Elena Rouse] Andrew W. Mellon Foundation http://www.csus.edu/indiv/h/howellj/econ145_f2009/Assignments/Assignment1/CommunityCollege.pdf  
117 Thomas J. Kane Cecelia Elena Rouse “The few studies that attempt to address such issues tend to find that community colleges draw both types of students. …” p. 67 Dismissive The Community College: Educating Students at the Margin between College and Work Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 1, Winter, 1999 [with Cecilia Elena Rouse] Andrew W. Mellon Foundation http://www.csus.edu/indiv/h/howellj/econ145_f2009/Assignments/Assignment1/CommunityCollege.pdf  
118 Thomas J. Kane Cecelia Elena Rouse [W]e know relatively little about the relationship between community college coursework and future earnings. … The resulting lack of data has been a serious limitation for research on community colleges.” p. 71 Dismissive The Community College: Educating Students at the Margin between College and Work Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 1, Winter, 1999 [with Cecilia Elena Rouse] Andrew W. Mellon Foundation http://www.csus.edu/indiv/h/howellj/econ145_f2009/Assignments/Assignment1/CommunityCollege.pdf  
119 Thomas J. Kane Cecelia Elena Rouse “The handful of available analyses of the labor market payoffs to community colleges has relied on panel surveys beginning with high school. …” p. 71 Dismissive The Community College: Educating Students at the Margin between College and Work Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 1, Winter, 1999 [with Cecilia Elena Rouse] Andrew W. Mellon Foundation http://www.csus.edu/indiv/h/howellj/econ145_f2009/Assignments/Assignment1/CommunityCollege.pdf  
120 Thomas J. Kane Cecelia Elena Rouse “The papers by Leigh and Gill (1997) and by Jacobson, LaLonde and Sullivan (1997) provide what evidence we have on this issue.” p. 73 Dismissive The Community College: Educating Students at the Margin between College and Work Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 1, Winter, 1999 [with Cecilia Elena Rouse] Andrew W. Mellon Foundation http://www.csus.edu/indiv/h/howellj/econ145_f2009/Assignments/Assignment1/CommunityCollege.pdf  
                   
  IRONIES:                
  Eric A. Hanushek Martin R. West (Ed.), Paul E. Peterson (Ed.) “Presumably they realize that their selective reporting of evidence yields reports that are not credible. . . .” p.95   School Money Trials: The Legal Pursuit of Educational Adequacy Brookings, 2007      
  Frederick M. Hess   "… would-be reformers err when they presume to know a lot more than they do."   Twitter tweet Feb 12, 2018        
                   
      Author cites (and accepts as fact without checking) someone elses dismissive review            
      Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work            
      Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.            
                   
  (1) [as of January, 2019] Some NBER funders [https://www.nber.org/CorporateSupporters2018.pdf] Contributing $20,000 - $25,000: AIG; Bank for International Settlements; Brevan Howard; Capital Group Companies; ExxonMobil; Fidelity Management & Research; General Motors Foundation; Goldman Sachs; Google, Inc.;  Johnson & Johnson; JP Morgan Chase Institute; Koret Foundation; Pfizer, Inc.; Vanguard; Anonymous (2).  Contributing $10,000 - $19,999: Fuller & Thaler Asset Management; Insurance Information Institute.  Contributing $5,000 - $9,999: Central Bank Research Associates; Norges Bank Investment Management.  Contributing Less Than $5,000: Allen Sinai; Board of Governors of Federal Reserve System; Federal Reserve District Banks (12); Francis Schott.  Contributions to Support the NBER Summer Institute: Contributing $50,000 to $75,000: Mohamed El-Erian. Contributing $10,000 to $19,999: Bank of England; Bank of France; Bank of Germany; Bank of Italy; Bank of Japan; Bank of Netherlands; Monetary Authority of Singapore; Reserve Bank of India.  Contributions to Support the NBER Digitization Initiative: Contributing $25,000 - $50,000: Amazon; Tides Foundation.   
  (2) Brookings funders [https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/2018-annual-report.pdf] (just those giving more than $10,000 in 2018 are included) $2,000,000 and Above:  Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation The Hutchins Family Foundation Philip Knight Embassy of the State of Qatar David M. Rubenstein $1,000,000–$1,999,999 Laura and John Arnold Foundation BHP Foundation Robert Bosch Stiftung The William and Flora HewlettFoundation The Kresge Foundation The John D. & Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation Government of Norway Alfred P. Sloan Foundation State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company University of Nevada, Las Vegas $500,000–$999,999 Anonymous Ben S. Bernanke Richard C. Blum and the Honorable Dianne Feinstein Annie E. Casey Foundation Steve and Roberta Denning Ford Foundation Robert Wood Johnson Foundation JPMorgan Chase & Co. LEGO Foundation Liberty Mutual Group National Institutes of Health Porticus Cheryl and Haim Saban Leonard D. Schaeffer John Hazen White, Jr. Tracy R. Wolstencroft $250,000–$499,999 Anonymous (3) Altman/Kazickas Foundation Laura and John Arnold Foundation Australian Government, Departmentof Foreign Affairs & Trade Bank of America Daniel Berger Brevan Howard Carnegie Corporation of New York Betsy Z. Cohen Howard Cox Democracy Fund Government of Denmark Exxon Mobil Corporation Google, Inc. Andrew Gundlach, Anna-Maria andStephen Kellen Foundation HCA Healthcare The Jenesis Group Decision Support Center, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia† Charles Koch Foundation The Henry Luce Foundation Microsoft Corporation Morgan Stanley New Venture Fund Northrup Grumman Corporation Rio Tinto The Rockefeller Foundation Searle Freedom Trust The Stockholm Chamber of Commerce Surdna Foundation Taipei Economic and CulturalRepresentative Office in theUnited States Tides Center The Andrew H. and Ann R. Tisch Foundation Turkish Industry and Business Assn. Antoine van Agtmael, Sunrise Foundation The Walton Family Foundation Chi Zhang $100,000–$249,999 Anonymous (5) Robert John Abernethy Paul Achleitner and Deutsche Bank Ahearn Family Foundation Allen & Company LLC American Chemistry Council Arconic Foundation Banco de Sabadell S.A. Barrick Gold Corporation Jane and Alan Batkin Hakeem Belo-Osagie BlackRock Financial Management, Inc. Ambassador Paul L. Cejas Central Indiana Corporate Partnership and BioCrossroads Anla Cheng Chevron Daimler Corporation The Davis Foundation Paul Desmarais, Jr. Haluk Dinçer Jian Ding Hanzade Dog ̆ an Boyner, Dog ̆ an Group Cheryl Cohen Effron and Blair W. Effron Equinor Facebook Alfonso Fanjul Fidelity Investments David and Marianna Fisher Genentech - A Member of The Roche Group Mark T. Gallogly and Elizabeth B. Strickler The George Gund Foundation The Heinz Endowments Antti Herlin, KONE Corporation Roger Hertog Hewlett-Packard Company Pete Higgins Henry L. Hillman Foundation Intesa Sanpaolo Jacobs Foundation Gail and Benjamin Jacobs Kenneth M. Jacobs Japan Bank for International Cooperation John Templeton Foundation Hosein Khajeh-Hosseiny, PhD Korea Development Institute The Korea Foundation Lenovo Group Limited Andrónico Luksic Lili Lynton Howard Marks Mars, Incorporated The McKnight Foundation Mercyhurst University Eric M. Mindich Aditya Mittal The Morningstar Foundation Charles Stewart Mott Foundation Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, America National Center for the Middle Market National Science Foundation Alexander Navab Omidyar Network Open Society Foundations Oregon Department of Transportation PepsiCo Pritzker Traubert Family Foundation Repsol Foundation Brian C. Rogers Robert E. Rubin Schlosstein-Hartley Family Foundation Eric E. Schmidt Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association Sequoia Capital China Advisors Limited Shell Arne and Ruth Sorenson Ramez Sousou Robert Stewart Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs Tang Xiaodan John L. Thornton Ercument Tokat Total S.A. U.S. Department of the Treasury Volvo Research and Educational Foundations David B. and Lynne Weinberg Jiyi Weng John O. Wynne Ezra K. Zilkha $50,000–$99,999 Anonymous Accton Technology Corporation All Nippon Airways Co., Ltd. Amazon.com American Institutes for Research Association of Equipment Manufacturers AT&T Rahul Bajaj Rex J. Bates BP plc Rosenberg Institute of Global Finance at Brandeis International Business School Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation Laurel Britton The Andrea and Charles Bronfman Philanthropies W. Edmund Clark The Clearing House Association ClimateWorks Foundation Abby Joseph Cohen Jonathan E. Colby Art Collins Comcast NBCUniversal Cornerstone Macro The Crown Family Alan and Lauren Dachs Eberstadt Kuffner Fund Elevate Credit, Inc. The Lee and Juliet Folger Fund Bart Friedman and Wendy A. Stein FutureWei Technologies, Inc. Benjamin D. Harburg Phil Harvey William A. Haseltine I Squared Capital Insurance Information Institute Intel Corporation Embassy of Japan Jefferies, LLC Tom Kaplan, Wolfgang Puck Fine Dining Group Cash, Contracts, and In-Kind Contributions Sheryl and Chip Kaye Samer Khoury Tawfic Khoury Amy Liu John G. Macfarlane III John Manley Medtronic, Inc. Cathy E. Minehan The Leo Model Foundation Ambrose Monell Foundation Mario M. Morino Nihon Keizai Shimbun-sya (NIKKEI) Noble Energy Nomura Foundation Norges Bank Investment Management Palantir Technologies The Peter G. Peterson Foundation Point72 Asset Management John G. Popp Public Health Law Center at Mitchell Hamline School of Law Marian Puig Thomas C. Ramey and Perrin Ireland Joseph L. Rice III Stephen Robert James D. Robinson III Rockefeller Brothers Fund Christopher Rokos Victoria and Roger Sant Robert B. Sheh Dr. Fay L. Shutzer and William A. Shutzer Government of Switzerland Tellurian, Inc. Lynn Thoman and the Leon Lowenstein Foundation UBS AG UN University World Institute for Development Economics Research Department for International Development, United Kingdom United Technologies Corporation University of Chicago University of Toronto The Urban Institute Visa Inc. Alex C. Walker Foundation Marcus Wallenberg, Foundation Asset Management (FAM) Claude Wasserstein Katie Henderson, The Water Research Foundation Beatrice W. and Anthony Welters The Ralph C. Wilson, Jr. Foundation Stephen M. Wolf Daniel H. Yergin and Angela Stent D.B. Zwirn Foundation $25,000–$49,999 Anonymous (2) Aberdeen Standard Investment ACTwireless Actagon AB Airlines for America John R. Allen Eileen A. Aptman Aramco Services Company†† Arnhold Foundation Central Intelligence Agency Charter Communications, Inc. Citi The Civic Council of Greater Kansas City H. Rodgin Cohen The Commonwealth Fund Susan Crown andWilliam C. Kunkler III Cummins Inc. DLI North America (Dai-ichi Life Group) European Recovery Program (ERP), German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy Evercore Partners Embassy of France Barbara H. Franklin Funders’ Network for Smart Growth and Livable Communities, Inc. Garfield Foundation Jeff Gore Teresa Heinz Kerry Hitachi, Ltd. Honda North America, Inc. Indra Inter-American Development Bank The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) The Israel Institute George M. James Japan Air Self Defense Force Japan Economic Foundation The Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership Japan International Cooperation Agency James A. Johnson George Kellner Jeffrey D. Lapin Sara Grootwassink Lewis Linden Trust for Conservation Lockheed Martin Corporation Marine Corps University Marubeni America Corporation The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. Municipality of The Hague Laxman Narasimhan NCTA - The Internet and Television Association Lisa O’Kelly Permanent Secretariat of the Community of Democracies Raytheon Company Marcia Riklis San Diego Regional Economic Development Corporation Katherine Stahl in Honor of Pietro Nivola Krishen Sud Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Temasek Holdings United Airlines, Inc. U.S. Department of the Air Force U.S. Department of the Army U.S. Department of the Navy John Usdan Verizon Communications Washington University in St. Louis The World Bank $10,000–$24,999 Anonymous (2) Aflac Yavuz Ahiska Astra Capital Management Waël O. Bayazid Kelvin Beachum, Jr. Linda and Jim Beers Franklin M. Berger David K. Berler The Boeing Company Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Anders Brag The Brodsky Family Foundation California HealthCare Foundation Morris Clarke Corning Incorporated Foundation The Council for the United States and Italy Arthur B. Culvahouse, Jr. The Curtis Family Foundation Davis Polk & Wardwell, LLP Porter Dawson Laura A. DeFelice Deloitte LLP Emsi R.S. Evans Foundation Philip and Diana Faillace Patricia Farman-Farmaian Roger C. Faxon Forum for the Future of Higher Education Mitzi and Cyrus Freidheim David Friend John L. Furth Gardner Grout Foundation Helene Gayle GEICO General Motors Foundation Marilyn and Michael Glosserman Rob Granieri Patrick W. and Sheila Proby Gross Agnes Gund Hellman Foundation Higher Heights ITOCHU International Inc. Joel and Ricki Kanter Cassandra Kelly Brenda R. Kiessling Jackie and Andrew Klaber Lee Klingenstein Robert and Arlene Kogod Korea International Trade Association Ned Lamont Toby Devan Lewis Lumos Foundation USA Bertil P. Lundqvist Marketplace Lending Association John P. McCormick Arjay Miller* Mary Miller Mitsubishi Corporation (Americas) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. Mitsui & Co. (U.S.A.), Inc. Mona Foundation Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Northern Trust NTT Corp. Gordon and Dailey Pattee Mary Carr Patton Dina and George Perry Marc Peters The Honorable Edward A. and Diane L. Powell Purdue Pharma L.P. Israel Roizman Charles Rossotti Jon Rotenstreich Frederic and Susan Rubinstein Ricardo and Leslie Salmon Jonathan Schaffzin Michael L. Schler Shimizu Corporation Stanley S. Shuman Emily and Robert E. Smith Sojitz Corporation of America Esta Eiger Stecher Andrew P. Steffan Sumitomo Corporation of Americas The Nelson S. Talbott Foundation Larry D. Thompson Toshiba America, Inc. Ranvir Trehan Universidad EAFIT, Colombia VOX Global Seymour and Kathleen Weingarten Joan and Harry Weintrob         
  (3) Some StandardsWork funders over the years: Skillman Foundation; USED Office of Career and Technical Education; National Endowment for the Humanities; US Department of Defense Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative; Texas Education Agency; DC Public Schools; National Assessment Governing Board.  
  (4) [as of January, 2019] See  https://www.the74million.org/supporters/  "Partners" include:  Triad Foundation, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, Park Avenue Charitable Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation, Bloomberg Philanthropies, California Community Foundation, Doris & Donald Fisher Fund, Gen Next Foundation, Karsh Family Foundation, Jon Sackler, William E. Simon Foundation, Charles Strauch, Walton Family Foundation.