HOME:  Dismissive Reviews in Education Policy Research          
  Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Funders Link1
1 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Given the topic’s importance, it is surprising that trends in SES-achievement gaps are so poorly documented." p.1 Dismissive Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764
2 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "The empirical basis for these conclusions is limited." p.2 Dismissive Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764
3 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "We add to this sparse literature by providing the first comprehensive analysis of long-run trends in SES-achievement gaps from psychometrically linked data sets." p.2 1stness Long-Run Trends in the U.S. SES-Achievement Gap CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Working Paper No. 8111, Munich, Germany   https://www.nber.org/papers/w26764
4 Eric A. Hanushek Paul Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Despite the topic's importance, surprisingly little scholarship has focused on long-term changes in the size of the achievement gap between students from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Our new research presented here, attempts to fill this void ..."", pp. 1-2 Dismissive The Achievement Gap Fails to Close: Half century of testing shows persistent divide between haves and have-nots Education Next, Summer 2019, 19(3) Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute https://www.educationnext.org/achievement-gap-fails-close-half-century-testing-shows-persistent-divide/
5 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "... both critics and proponents of international and national testing often fail to differentiate among alternative forms and uses of testing, leading to a confused debate."  Denigrating Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation & (3) NBER funders http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Bergbauer%2BHanushek%2BWoessmann%202018%20NBER%20w24836.pdf
6 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "For example, in the United States consideration of testing is mostly restricted to such accountability systems as exemplified by No Child Left Behind (NCLB)." Dismissive Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation & (3) NBER funders http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Bergbauer%2BHanushek%2BWoessmann%202018%20NBER%20w24836.pdf
7 Annika B. Bergbauer Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessman "While there have been previous evaluations of the impact of accountability systems, largely within the United States (Figlio and Loeb (2011)), it is unclear how to generalize from these." Dismissive Testing, p. 1 NBER Working Paper No. 24836, July, 2018 Smith-Richardson Foundation & (3) NBER funders http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Bergbauer%2BHanushek%2BWoessmann%202018%20NBER%20w24836.pdf
8 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold Student performance differs greatly across countries, but little is known about the role of teacher quality in explaining these differences. New international data from the PIAAC survey of adult skills allow quantifying country-specific teacher skills in numeracy and literacy for the first time. Dismissive The Impact of Teacher Skills on Student Performance across Countries, Abstract CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
9 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold While previous studies stressed the importance of institutional features of the schooling systems in explaining these differences, the potential role of teacher quality has remained largely unexplored. This paper investigates the extent to which differences in measured teacher skills across the most developed countries can explain international differences in student performance. Denigrating The Impact of Teacher Skills on Student Performance across Countries, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
10 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold Our analysis exploits new international data in order to test rigorously these hypotheses and conclusions. Using recent international data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), we can for the first time quantify differences in teacher skills in numeracy and literacy. 1stness The Impact of Teacher Skills on Student Performance across Countries, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
11 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann The skills of the population are generally viewed as a key ingredient in modern knowledge based economies (e.g., Hanushek and Woessmann (2008)). However, existing evidence on the returns to skills in the labor market is surprisingly limited, coming almost exclusively from earnings of early-career workers in the United States. As a result, any sense of how rewards to skills evolve over the work life or of how they might differ across economies is absent Dismissive Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
12 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann New international data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) dramatically changes the ability to understand how economies value skills. Using these data, this paper provides new insights into the value of skills in different economic settings by developing estimates of the earnings returns to cognitive skills across the entire labor force for 23 countries. Dismissive Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
13 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann While assessments of the achievement of students are common, tested students are seldom followed from school into the labor market where the impact of differential skills can be observed. Denigrating Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
14 Eric A. Hanushek Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, Ludger Woessmann Bowles, Gintis, and Osborne (2001) provide an early survey of studies of achievement effects, and Hanushek and Woessmann (2008) and Hanushek and Rivkin (2012) survey more recent evidence. Dismissive Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC, p.1 CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education, 12-13 September, 2014    
15 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold "Differences in teacher quality are commonly cited as a key determinant of the huge international student performance gaps. However, convincing evidence on this relationship is still lacking, in part because it is unclear how to measure teacher quality consistently across countries." Abstract Denigrating The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher
cognitive skills and student performance
Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-06 Harvard Kennedy School https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG14_06_Hanushek_Piopiunik_Wiederhold.pdf
16 Eric A. Hanushek Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold "But less considered is how the overall skills of a nation feed back into the skills of teachers. This paper investigates…" p.1 Dismissive The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher
cognitive skills and student performance
Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series, PEPG 14-06 Harvard Kennedy School https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG14_06_Hanushek_Piopiunik_Wiederhold.pdf
17 Gregory F. Branch Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin "Yet until very recently there was little rigorous research demonstrating the importance of principal quality for student outcomes, much less the specific practices that cause some principals to be more successful than others. As is often the case in education policy discussions, we have relied on anecdotes instead." Dismissive, Denigrating School leaders matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals Education Next, Winter 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/school-leaders-matter/
18 Gregory F. Branch Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin "Strong leadership is viewed as especially important for revitalization of failing schools. To date, however, this discussion has been largely uninformed by systematic analysis of principals’ impact on student outcomes." Dismissive, Denigrating School leaders matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals Education Next, Winter 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/school-leaders-matter/
19 Eric Hanushek   "Unfortunately, direct evidence on the distribution of teacher quality and its impact for disadvantaged students is hard to come by." p.47 Dismissive An effective teacher in every classroom Education Next, Summer 2010 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Haycock%2BHanushek%202010%20EdNext%2010%283%29.pdf
20 Eric Hanushek   "An incentive approach must be the center-piece of improving teacher quality in urban schools ... Unfortunately, we have little experience with how to structure incentives." p.48  Dismissive An effective teacher in every classroom Education Next, Summer 2010 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Haycock%2BHanushek%202010%20EdNext%2010%283%29.pdf
21 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The final strand of relevant literature pertains to accountability itself. ... Much of the work is very new and has not appeared in journals yet. The available studies generally support the view that accountability has had a positive effect on student outcomes, although the limited observations introduce some uncertainty (Carnoy & Loeb, 2002; Hanushek & Raymond, 2003b; Jacob, 2003; Peterson & West, 2003)." Dismissive Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?, p.300 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 297–327 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
22 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The existing analyses of accountability and state differences in performance (Carnoy & Loeb, 2002; Hanushek & Raymond, 2003b), ... " Dismissive Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?, p.300 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 297–327 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
23 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "States began experimenting with school accountability systems during the 1980s, but the decade of 1990s began the age of accountability." Dismissive Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?, p.306 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 297–327 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
24 Eric A. Hanushek   "We now have direct evidence that school accountability leads to positive results. In an analysis of state differerences in student performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Haushek and Raymond (2004) show that states adopting accountability systems have shown better performance. However, this better performance only results from accountability systems that attach consequences for performance to the schools." 1stness Why the Federal Government Should be Involved in School Accountability. P.170 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 1, 167–178 (2005) "This work was funded by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
25 Eric A. Hanushek   "The results indicae that states introducing consequential accountability showed improvements of some 0.2 standard deviations in eighth-grade NAEP scores over those that did not employ consequential accountability (holding other things constant). No other policy of the last decades has shown a similar sustained improvement for broad population groups." Dismissive Why the Federal Government Should be Involved in School Accountability. P.170 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 1, 167–178 (2005) "This research was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute."  
26 Eric Hanushek Margaret Raymond "The final strand of relevant literature pertains to accountability itself. Although a recent policy effort, policies related to accountability have already become quite controversial – rising to the level of front page stories in the New York Times (Winter (2002)), Much of the work is very new and has not appeared journals yet." p.5 Dismissive DOES SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY LEAD TO IMPROVED STUDENT PERFORMANCE? NBER Working Paper 10591, June 2004 This work was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute. http://www.nber.org/papers/w10591
27 Eric Hanushek Margaret Raymond "The available studies generally support the view that accountability has had a positive effect on student outcomes, although the limited observations introduce some uncertainty (Carnoy and Loeb (2002); Hanushek and Raymond (2003b); Jacob (2003); Peterson and West (2003))." Dismissive DOES SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY LEAD TO IMPROVED STUDENT PERFORMANCE? NBER Working Paper 10591, June 2004 This work was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute. http://www.nber.org/papers/w10591
28 Eric Hanushek Margaret Raymond "Nonetheless, as we return to below, little analysis provides information on the longer run outcomes of this nature [on gaming accountability programs]" Dismissive DOES SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY LEAD TO IMPROVED STUDENT PERFORMANCE? NBER Working Paper 10591, June 2004 This work was supported by the Packard Humanities Institute. http://www.nber.org/papers/w10591
29 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "Adoption of statewide accountability systems for schools has been one of the most striking reforms in American education policy in the past twenty-five years. The change in focus away from inputs and processes and toward out comes marks a dramatic shift in orientation. And yet we know little so far about how well these systems work. The lack of evidence on accountability...", p.406 Dismissive The Effect of School Accountability Systems on the Level and Distribution of Student Achievement Journal of the European Economic Association April–May 2004 2(2–3):406 – 415    
30 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The difficulty is that little progress has been made in describing explicitly the different policies, regulations, and incentives that might be important in determining student performance." Dismissive The Effect of School Accountability Systems on the Level and Distribution of Student Achievement
Journal of the European Economic Association April–May 2004 2(2–3):406 – 415    
31 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond, Paul E. Peterson (Ed.), Martin R. West (Ed.) "While research on the outcomes of accountability systems is growing rapidly, it still represents a young and highly selective body of work." Dismissive "Lessons about the Design of State Accountability Systems."  in No Child Left Behind? The Politics and Practice of Accountability, Washington, DC: Brookings, 2003, pp. 126-151. (2) Brookings Institution funders  
32 Eric A. Hanushek reported by Lynn Olson "Most of the evidence is unpublished at this point and the answers that exist are partial at best." Dismissive Accountability Studies Find Mixed Impact on Achievement Education Week. June 19, p.13, 2002. (1) Education Week funders  
33 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "If one is interested in outcomes, one should focus on outcomes. As simple as this principle might be, it has not been recognized previously." p.81 Dismissive, Denigrating Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
34 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "At the outset, it is important to recognize that there is little experience in the design and operation of educational accountability systems and their elements." pp.99-1000 Dismissive Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
35 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "We do not know much about how best to accumulate knowledge or even about which directions schools might take to improve." p.100 Dismissive Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
36 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "Again, little is known about any collateral impact of accountability structures and their resulting incentives on the efficiency of resource usage." p.102 Dismissive Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
37 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "past reearch has produced no clear indication of what precisely helps students learn. Continuing research into the determinants of performance may be part of the anwer, but so far such research has yet to be successful, and it is unlikely to provide any immediate guidance." pp.102-103 Dismissive, Denigrating Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
38 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "All current testing is focused on meeting an initial set of standards that are assumed to reflect the set of knowledge that adequately prepares students for their postschooling years. There is surprisingly little attempt to match this with subsequent performance. The research on this is also quite thin." p.103 Dismissive, Denigrating Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
39 Eric A. Hanushek, Margaret E. Raymond Williamson M. Evers & Herbert J. Walberg, Eds. "Concentrating on student performance is a very important and positive change in how we view schools. Nonetheless, although the movement toward performance-based systems offers the best chance for improvement, the journey has just begun." p.104 Dismissive Sorting Out Accountability Systems School Accountability, Hoover Institution Press, 2002 Koret Foundation, Tad & Dianne Taube, Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Boyd & Jill Smith, Jack & Mary Lois Wheatley, Franklin & Catherine Johnson, Jerry & Patti Hume, Doris & Donald Fisher, Bernard Lee Schwartz Foundation  
40 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "While research on the outcomes of accountability systems is growing rapidly, it still represents a young and highly selective body of work." Dismissive "Lessons about the Design of State Accountability Systems."  Paper prepared for "Taking Account of Accountability: Assessing Policy and Politics" Harvard University. June 9-11, 2002.    
41 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "While research on the outcomes of accountability systems is growing rapidly, it still represents a young and highly selective body of work." Dismissive "Improving Educational Quality: How Best to Evaluate Our Schools?"
Paper prepared for "Education in the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World." Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. June 2002.    
42 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "The few available analyses of the distribution of student performance after changes in funding distributions required by courts also have shown little evidence of narrowed variation in student results (Downes, 1992; Hanushek and Somers, 2001)." p.367 Dismissive "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
43 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "Again, little is known about any collateral impact of accountability structures and their resulting incentives on the efficiency of resource usage." p.381 Dismissive "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
44 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "Past research into the determinants of student performance—whether looking at teacher characteristics, specialized programs, or management and leadership—has not produced clear indications of how systematically to improve student performance." p.382 Dismissive, Denigrating "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
45 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "... on–going research into the specific determinants of performance has yet to be very successful and is unlikely to provide any immediate guidance to school personnel. This inherent and potentially serious weakness must be recognized." p.382 Dismissive, Denigrating "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
46 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "All testing is focused internally, and there is surprisingly little attempt to match this with subsequent performance. The research on this is also quite thin." p.382 Dismissive "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
47 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "There is increasing research suggesting that performance on cognitive tests is strongly related to labor market earnings, but this research has not been very careful in distinguishing among alternative performance measures (and their underlying standards of knowledge)." p.382 Dismissive, Denigrating "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
48 Eric A. Hanushek Margaret E. Raymond "However, the newness to education of accountability for outcomes means that the reality of current reporting and accountability systems will need refinement. In many cases we do not have adequate experience, theory, or empirical evidence yet to judge the actual implementation." p.383 Dismissive "The Confusing World of Educational Accountability" National Tax Journal 54(2):365-384, May 2001 DOI: 10.17310/ntj.2001.2.08   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292412159_The_Confusing_World_of_Educational_Accountability
49 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Since the release of Equality of Educational Opportunity (the "Coleman Report") in 1966, the educational policy debate has often been reduced to a series of simplistic arguments and assertions about the role of schools in producing achievement. The character of this debate has itself been heavily influenced by confusing and conflicting research. While this research has suffered from inadequate data, imprecise definitions of the underlying problems and issues have been as important in obscuring the fundamental policy choices." p.1 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  (3) NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
50 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "In comparison to studies that use only a small sample of students from each school, these data provide much more precise estimates of school average test scores and test score gains." p. 4 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  (3) NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
51 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "While some past work has pursued portions of this, the limitations of previous data required the imposition of extremely strong assumptions to identify the various components of achievement gain." pp.6–7 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  (3) NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
52 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Many studies use the between school variation as a percentage of the total . . . to measure the contribution of school quality to achievement. This ratio is not, however, a clear indication of the possibilities for policy manipulation, . . ." pp. 8–9 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  (3) NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
53 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "[S]tudies that use the between school variance component as an upper bound for the potential contribution of schooling may seriously underestimate the importance of schools." p. 11 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  (3) NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
54 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Like most educational studies, this estimation relies on self-reported school data, and these data are prone to significant reporting errors. Unlike most studies, however, we have access to longitudinal information on key data, and therefore we can adjust for inconsistencies that occur over time." p. 23 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  (3) NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
55 Eric A. Hanushek with Kain & Rivkin "Past research attempts to clarify the impact of schools on student performance have tended to worsen the situation by providing conflicting and unreliable conclusions." p. 31 Denigrating Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement NBER Working Paper 6691, August 1998  (3) NBER funders http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf
56 Hanushek, Eric A.    "In sum, these studies are of noticeably lower quality than the best-and the typical-study investigating real classroom resources." p. 143 Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
57 Hanushek, Eric A.    "The measures of other school resources also are frequently measured poorly and tend to be available only at the district level." p. 143 Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
58 Hanushek, Eric A.    "In reality, as discussed below, studies involving per-pupil expenditure tend to be the lowest quality studies, and there is substantial reason to believe that even the reported results overstate the true effect of added expenditure." p. 144 Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
59 Hanushek, Eric A.    "Unfortunately, little progress has been made at identifying, defining, or measuring the most important aspects of state policies in tenus of their effect on student performance or the efficiency of resource usage." p. 146 Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
60 Hanushek, Eric A.    "The published literature is particularly susceptible to the claim that it is unrepresentative of all studies that may have been conducted (the so-called publication bias problem)." p. 149 (extract from Hedges 1990) Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
61 Hanushek, Eric A.    "Unfortunately, the original data are seldom available for reanalysis- and even when they are, combining data from different sources can be difficult, which forces a variety of compromises in the aggregation of results." p. 151 Dismissive, Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
62 Hanushek, Eric A.    "Such a description is itself much too simple because we have limited experience with alternative incentive schemes (Hanushek with others, 1994)." p. 155 Dismissive Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
63 Hanushek, Eric A.    "While some studies have undoubtedly been missed in this review, it is virtually impossible that the missed studies would alter the overall conclusions given the numbers of studies reported below." p. 157 Dismissive Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
64 Hanushek, Eric A.    "One crucial aspect is the reliance on selective samples that are biased toward resource effects. They employ a series of arbitrary, but far from innocuous, selection rules in an attempt to make the data fit their methodology, which requires independence of the estimates." p. 159 Denigrating Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts Summer 1997, Vol. 19, No.2, http://hbanaszak.mjr.uw.edu.pl/TempTxt/Hanushek%201997%20EduEvaPolAna%2019%282%29.pdf  
65 Eric A. Hanushek Eric A. Hanushek, D.W. Jorgenson (Eds.) "The current push for reform is commonly traced to A Nation at Risk.... Since its publication, new reports have come so frequently that it is rare for a major institution not to have its own report and position on education reform. Yet it is startling how little any of the reports, or the refom movement itself, draw upon economic principles in formulating new plans." p.29 Dismissive Outcomes, Costs, and Incentives in Schools Improving America’s schools: The role of incentives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996 National Academy of Sciences funders  
66 Eric A. Hanushek Eric A. Hanushek, D.W. Jorgenson (Eds.) "The most remarkable fact about the range of conceptually appealing performance incentives is that they remain virtually untested. Few examples of their use are available, and, as with the vast majority of new programs instituted in schools, attempts to introduce these various incentive systems are seldom evaluated in any systematic manner." p.43 Dismissive Outcomes, Costs, and Incentives in Schools Improving America’s schools: The role of incentives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996 National Academy of Sciences funders  
67 Eric A. Hanushek Eric A. Hanushek, D.W. Jorgenson (Eds.) "This lack of knowledge about performance systems calls for a broad program of experimentation and evaluation.... Remarkably, evaluation is seldom an integral part of schools today. Any evaluation that is done is much more likely to occur before a program is introduced, rather than affter." p.44 Dismissive, Denigrating Outcomes, Costs, and Incentives in Schools Improving America’s schools: The role of incentives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996 National Academy of Sciences funders  
68 Eric A. Hanushek Eric A. Hanushek, D.W. Jorgenson (Eds.) "While U.S. businesses have frequently lamented the quality of workers they receive from schools, they have never worked closely with schools to define the skills and abilities they seek in prospective workers." p.49 Dismissive Outcomes, Costs, and Incentives in Schools Improving America’s schools: The role of incentives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996 National Academy of Sciences funders  
69 Hanushek, Eric A.    Unfortunately, standard textbook formulations or typical industry and aggregate production function specifications provide little direct guidance in educational analysis, . . . p. 1142 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
70 Hanushek, Eric A.    A variety of public finance investigations, urban housing and location studies, and labor economics analyses include at least tangentially some consideration of school quality and performance- but generally these studies do not incorporate the results of direct analyses of schooling. p. 1142 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
71 Hanushek, Eric A.    From the standpoint of production function analyses, there are two fundamental difficulties with existing research into postschooling outcomes. p. 1151 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
72 Hanushek, Eric A.    Attempts to incorporate qualitative measures of schooling into labor market studies have been severely limited by availability of data, by the necessity of using fairly peculiar samples, and by reliance on stringent assumptions about school operations. p. 1151 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
73 Hanushek, Eric A.    In summary, the literature about the relationship between measures of schooling quality and subsequent attainment is ambiguous. The analyses available are often crude empirical forays that are difficult to replicate and to evaluate in a definitive manner. p. 1152 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
74 Hanushek, Eric A.    [T]here is not enough available evidence to determine conclusively which, if any, of these four divergent views are valid. p. 1153 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
75 Hanushek, Eric A.    [S]tudies of lifetime outcomes, while conceptually very relevant to measuring school outputs, have not been particularly illuminating;  . .  p. 1154 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
76 Hanushek, Eric A.    At the individual level, test scores related to ability or achievement have obvious appeal, even though available research provides little guidance about specific kinds of tests or different possible dimensions. p. 1155 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
77 Hanushek, Eric A.    Failure to recognize these points has probably caused the greatest problems in interpreting individual studies. p. 1155 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
78 Hanushek, Eric A.    Unfortunately, little such work is available. p. 1158, n. 20 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
79 Hanushek, Eric A.    Information on salaries and expenditures is less frequently available. p. 1162, n. 32 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
80 Hanushek, Eric A.    Furthermore, given the general biases toward publication of statistically significant estimates, the paucity of statistically significant results is quite notable. p. 1163 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
81 Hanushek, Eric A.    Analyses of these issues unfortunately have not been undertaken in any systematic manner within the context of edu production functions. p. 1163 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
82 Hanushek, Eric A.    Unfortunately, few such studies include measures of school factors. Exceptions are Murnane, Rebecca Maynard, and James Ohls (1981) and Hanushek (1986). p. 1163, n. 35 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
83 Hanushek, Eric A.    The closest thing to a consistent finding.among the studies is that "smarter" teachers, ones who perform well on verbal ability tests, do better in the classroom, but even for that the evidence is not very strong (Hanushek 1981). p. 1164 Denigrating The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
84 Hanushek, Eric A.    Unfortunately, because little information is available about preferences other than performance maximization on the part of schools, it is very difficult to evaluate their influence on the measured efficiency of schools. p. 1166 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
85 Hanushek, Eric A.    It should be pointed out that similar analyses of production functions for private, profit-making industries are not readily available. p. 1166, n. 43 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
86 Hanushek, Eric A.    The point is that we have no evidence of this universally, and thus we have no mandate for making massive changes just to be doing something. p. 1167 Dismissive The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools Journal of Economic Literature, Volume 24, Issue 3 (Sep., 1986), 1141-1177.   http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%201986%20JEL%2024%283%29.pdf
87 Eric A. Hanushek Dongwook Kim International comparative studies seldom yield conclusive findings. . . . Comparative growth analyses-relying on varying samples, differing analytical foci, and imperfect data-have led to some general findings along with many suggestive answers of questionable reliability. p. 33 Denigrating Schooling, Labor Force Inequality, and Economic Growth NBER Working Paper 5399, December 1995  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w5399.pdf
88 Eric A. Hanushek Dongwook Kim Just as was the case within countries, little evidence suggests  that simple resource policies are likely to improve student (and national) performance. p.34 Dismissive Schooling, Labor Force Inequality, and Economic Growth NBER Working Paper 5399, December 1995  NBER funders http://www.nber.org/papers/w5399.pdf
                 
  IRONIES:              
  Eric A. Hanushek   “Some academics are so eager to step out on policy issues that they don’t bother to find out what the reality is.”   as quoted by Rick Hess in “Professor Pallas’s Inept, Irresponsible Attack on DCPS” Education Week on the Web, August 2, 2010,    http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/rick_hess_straight_up/2010/08/professor_pallass_inept_irresponsible_attack_on_dcps.html
  Eric A. Hanushek Martin R. West (Ed.), Paul E. Peterson (Ed.) “Presumably they realize that their selective reporting of evidence yields reports that are not credible. . . .” p.95   School Money Trials: The Legal Pursuit of Educational Adequacy Brookings, 2007    
  Eric A. Hanushek   "Instead of weighing the full evidence before it in the neutral manner expected of an NRC committee, the panel selectively uses available evidence and then twists it into bizarre, one might say biased, conclusions."   "Grinding the anti-testing ax: More bias than evidence behind NRC panel’s conclusions" Education Next, 12(2)   http://educationnext.org/grinding-the-antitesting-ax/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "The committee considers a review from 2008 of 14 studies, and 4 studies conducted after that review. ... The NRC committee apparently felt no need to look any further and ignored the fact that a majority of the 14 studies would not come close to meeting its standard of enabling a “causal conclusion.”   "Grinding the anti-testing ax: More bias than evidence behind NRC panel’s conclusions" Education Next, 12(2)   http://educationnext.org/grinding-the-antitesting-ax/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "When it comes to gathering together the general literature, both theoretical and empirical, on the use of incentives in various contexts, the committee’s work is solidly constructed."   "Grinding the anti-testing ax: More bias than evidence behind NRC panel’s conclusions" Education Next, 12(2)   http://educationnext.org/grinding-the-antitesting-ax/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "The desire for publicity apparently pushes some researchers to prepackage their own sound bites."   "RAND versus RAND: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us? by Stephen P. Klein et al."  Education Next, 1(1)   http://educationnext.org/randversusrand/
  Eric A. Hanushek   "Journalists tend to judge a study’s quality—particularly a complicated statistical study—by its conclusions and by an undue emphasis on the study’s source rather than the strength of its analysis."   "RAND versus RAND: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us? by Stephen P. Klein et al."  Education Next, 1(1)   http://educationnext.org/randversusrand/
                 
      Author cites (and accepts as fact without checking) someone elses dismissive review          
      Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work          
      Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.          
                 
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