HOME:  Dismissive Reviews in Education Policy Research
  Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Funders Link1 Notes
1 Martin R. West   "Sixteen years ago, Education Next published a research article providing the first hard evidence that students learn more from teachers who are more demanding when handing out student grades (see “The Gentleman’s A,” research, Spring 2004)." Firstness In Fight Against Grade Inflation, Those Rare Tough Teachers Are Champions Education Next, Feb. 6, 2020 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/in-fight-against-grade-inflation-rare-tough-teachers-are-champions/ "See a review of hundreds of studies:  Brookhart et al. (2016) A Century of Grading Research: A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., Bowers, A. J., McMillan, J. H., Smith, J. K., Smith, L. F., Stevens, M.T., Welsh, M. E. (2016). A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.
doi: 10.3102/0034654316672069   http://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316672069"
2 Seth Gershenson   "There is surprisingly little empirical evidence to back up the intuitive idea that high grading standards boost student learning. " Dismissive End the "Easy A"  Education Next, Feb. 4, 2020 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/end-easy-a-tougher-grading-standards-set-students-up-success/ "See a review of hundreds of studies:  Brookhart et al. (2016) A Century of Grading Research: A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., Bowers, A. J., McMillan, J. H., Smith, J. K., Smith, L. F., Stevens, M.T., Welsh, M. E. (2016). A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.
doi: 10.3102/0034654316672069   http://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316672069"
3 Seth Gershenson   "The best evidence to date comes from a study of elementary-school students in Florida (see “The Gentleman’s A,” research, spring 2004), in which Maurice Lucas and David Figlio found that students whose classroom teachers had high grading standards did better in math and reading, and that those effects were largest for high-achieving students.
This research dovetails with prior evidence from Julian Betts and Jeff Grogger...."
Dismissive, Denigrating End the "Easy A"  Education Next, Feb. 4, 2020 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/end-easy-a-tougher-grading-standards-set-students-up-success/ "See a review of hundreds of studies:  Brookhart et al. (2016) A Century of Grading Research: A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., Bowers, A. J., McMillan, J. H., Smith, J. K., Smith, L. F., Stevens, M.T., Welsh, M. E. (2016). A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.
doi: 10.3102/0034654316672069   http://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316672069"
4 Paul E. Peterson Eric A. Hanushek, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Despite the topic's importance, surprisingly little scholarship has focused on long-term changes in the size of the achievement gap between students from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Our new research presented here, attempts to fill this void ..."", pp. 1-2 Dismissive The Achievement Gap Fails to Close: Half century of testing shows persistent divide between haves and have-nots Education Next, Summer 2019, 19(3) Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/achievement-gap-fails-close-half-century-testing-shows-persistent-divide/  
5 Paul E. Peterson Eric A. Hanushek, Laura M. Talpey, Ludger Woessmann "Despite firm documentation of a strong connection between socioeconomic status and student achievement, only two studies provide information on trends in the opportunity gap over time." p.3 Dismissive The Achievement Gap Fails to Close: Half century of testing shows persistent divide between haves and have-nots Education Next, Summer 2019, 19(3) Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute https://www.educationnext.org/achievement-gap-fails-close-half-century-testing-shows-persistent-divide/  
6 Jay P. Greene   "Parents have never rallied to demand that their children be tested more, that tests be used to retain students or prevent them from graduating, or that tests be used to determine teacher pay or employment." Dismissive Futile Accountability Systems Should Be Abandoned Education Next, Summer 2017 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/futile-accountability-systems-should-be-abandoned-forum-greene/ No. Before the education reform citation cartel got involved in influencing education policy, prior to 2001, strong majorities of the public favored all three. See, for example, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920  or  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1745-3992.1998.tb00624.x
7 Jay P. Greene   "Educators revile test-based accountability even more." Dismissive Futile Accountability Systems Should Be Abandoned Education Next, Summer 2017 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/futile-accountability-systems-should-be-abandoned-forum-greene/ No. Before the education reform citation cartel got involved in influencing education policy, prior to 2001, strong majorities of educators favored traditional test-based accountability, with full battery, student-stakes tests at the end of high school and/or middle school. See, for example, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920  or  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1745-3992.1998.tb00624.x
8 Morgan Polikoff   "David Figlio and Susanna Loeb's 2011 review of [test-based accountability] research summarizes this literature comprehansively." Dismissive Why accountability matters, and why it must evolve.  Education Next, SUMMER 2017 / VOL. 17, NO. 3 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute   No, it does not. See, for example, Test Frequency, Stakes, and Feedback in Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis   https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0193841X19865628#abstract
9 Peter De Vlieger Brian A. Jacob, Kevin Stange "Yet relatively little is known about the impact of instructor effectiveness on student performance in higher education" Dismissive Measuring up: Assessing instructor effectiveness in higher education Education Next, SUMMER 2017 / VOL. 17, NO. 3 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/measuring-up-assessing-instructor-effectiveness-higher-education/ In fact, the research literature on testing in higher education is long and deep. Consider, for example, the work of Trudy Banta, Patricia Cross, and Thomas Angelo. See also the large number of higher education studies in this meta analysis:  https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920 ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm
10 Peter De Vlieger Brian A. Jacob, Kevin Stange "This lack of research is largely the result of data and methodological challenges." Dismissive Measuring up: Assessing instructor effectiveness in higher education Education Next, SUMMER 2017 / VOL. 17, NO. 3 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/measuring-up-assessing-instructor-effectiveness-higher-education/ In fact, the research literature on testing in higher education is long and deep. Consider, for example, the work of Trudy Banta, Patricia Cross, and Thomas Angelo. See also the large number of higher education studies in this meta analysis:  https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15305058.2011.602920 ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QuantitativeList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/QualitativeList.htm
11 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson "Despite this rapid growth in the charter sector, little is known about the views of parents who are making use of these schools." Dismissive What do parents think of their children's schools? Education Next, Spring 2017 / Vol. 17, No. 2 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/what-do-parents-think-of-childrens-schools-ednext-private-district-charter/  
12 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson "To our knowledge, this study, together with a companion investigation by Albert Cheng and Paul E. Peterson (see “How Satisfied are Parents with Their Children’s Schools?” features, Spring 2017), are the first to report results from nationally representative surveys of parents in these three sectors." 1stness What do parents think of their children's schools? Education Next, Spring 2017 / Vol. 17, No. 2 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/what-do-parents-think-of-childrens-schools-ednext-private-district-charter/  
13 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson "As mentioned, there is no published comparison of parental perceptions of school life across the charter, district, and private sectors nationwide." Dismissive What do parents think of their children's schools? Education Next, Spring 2017 / Vol. 17, No. 2 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/what-do-parents-think-of-childrens-schools-ednext-private-district-charter/  
14 Steinberg, Matthew P. Lascoe, Johanna "In general, we find that the evidence for critiques of exclusionary discipline and in support of alternative strategies is relatively thin." Dismissive What Do We Know About School Discipline Reform?, p.3 Education Next, Winter 2017 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/what-do-we-know-about-school-discipline-reform-suspensions-expulsions/ Judging by their endnotes, the "evidence base" comprises at most what could be found in an Internet search. Thirty-seven endnotes date from 2010, and the other ten date to the period 2000–2010. There are some issues in education policy so new that research on them only began after the year 2000. This is not one of them.
15 Steinberg, Matthew P. Lascoe, Johanna "Across the country, disciplinary programs and policies are trending away from exclusionary practices and toward a variety of alternatives, with the endorsement of federal and state governments. Yet the evidence base about the harm caused by suspensions, and the potential benefits of other approaches, is surprisingly thin. Clearly, there is a great need for rigorous evaluation research, which should focus both on the impact of school discipline reforms and on their potential unintended consequences." Dismissive, Denigrating What Do We Know About School Discipline Reform?, pp.17-18 Education Next, Winter 2017 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/what-do-we-know-about-school-discipline-reform-suspensions-expulsions/ Judging by their endnotes, the "evidence base" comprises at most what could be found in an Internet search. Thirty-seven endnotes date from 2010, and the other ten date to the period 2000–2010. There are some issues in education policy so new that research on them only began after the year 2000. This is not one of them.
16 Blake Heller Matthew Davis "And although there is a robust positive correlation between test performance and college enrollment, there is little existing evidence as to whether schools that increase test scores the most also help their students succeed at the next level." Dismissive Raising more than test scores Education Next, WINTER 2017 / VOL. 17, NO. 1 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/raising-more-than-test-scores-noble-charter-no-excuses/  
17 Robert Pondiscio   "Six years after Common Core’s debut, these critics have produced enough books to collapse a sturdy bookshelf. Few of them make any earnest attempt to persuade readers to reject Common Core on its merits or lack thereof. Some barely take up the content of the standards at all. Instead, they mainly traffic in fear mongering and paranoid conspiracy theories about corporate greed." Denigrating Lessons on Common Core: Critical books offer more folly than wisdom Education Next, January 5, 2017 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/lessons-on-common-core-critical-books-pondiscio/ Pondiscio neglects to mention that he works for an advocacy organization that has accepted many millions of dollars for the expressed purpose of promoting Common Core. 
18 Robert Pondiscio   "For Common Core’s excitable enemies, there is no such thing as overreach." Denigrating Lessons on Common Core: Critical books offer more folly than wisdom Education Next, January 5, 2017 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/lessons-on-common-core-critical-books-pondiscio/ Pondiscio neglects to mention that he works for an advocacy organization that has accepted many millions of dollars for the expressed purpose of promoting Common Core. 
19 Robert Pondiscio   "Sadly, the paranoia that infuses the anti–Common Core literature is particularly prominent in books written by teachers. ... Schneider’s true intent is not to evaluate the standards but to expose the “power grab” behind education reform. The roundup of usual suspects includes Bill Gates, Arne Duncan, the testing company Pearson Education, and even the Fordham Institute." Denigrating Lessons on Common Core: Critical books offer more folly than wisdom Education Next, January 5, 2017 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/lessons-on-common-core-critical-books-pondiscio/ Unless Pondiscio can read others' minds, he does not know what Mercedes Schneider's "true intent" was. Schneider's book is exhaustively researched and Schneider suffered from no conflict of interest in writing it. Pondiscio, by contrast, is working for an advocacy organization that has accepted many millions of dollars for the expressed purpose of promoting Common Core. Pondiscio neglects to mention the latter.
20 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "In fact, we know very little about the impact of test-based accountability on students’ later success." Dismissive When does accountability work? Education Next, WINTER 2016 / VOL. 16, NO. 1 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/when-does-accountability-work-texas-system/  
21 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "In this study, we present the first evidence of how accountability pressure on schools influences students’ long-term outcomes." 1stness When does accountability work? Education Next, WINTER 2016 / VOL. 16, NO. 1 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/when-does-accountability-work-texas-system/  
22 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "What we don’t know is: Do these improvements on high-stakes tests represent real learning gains? " Dismissive When does accountability work? Education Next, WINTER 2016 / VOL. 16, NO. 1 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/when-does-accountability-work-texas-system/  
23 David J. Deming Sarah Cohodes, Jennifer Jennings, Christopher Jencks "Our study overcomes the limits of short-term analysis by asking: when schools face accountability pressure, do their efforts to raise test scores generate improvements in higher education attainment, earnings, and other long-term outcomes?" Denigrating When does accountability work? Education Next, WINTER 2016 / VOL. 16, NO. 1 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/when-does-accountability-work-texas-system/  
24 Jay P. Greene Colin Hitt, Anne Kraybill, Carl A. Bogulski "This is the first randomized experiment to discover what students get out of seeing live theatre." 1stness Learning from Live Theater Education Next, Winter 2015 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute https://www.educationnext.org/learning-live-theater/
25 Martin R. West Christopher F.O. Gabrieli, Amy S. Finn, Matthew A. Kraft, John D.E. Gabrieli "We have only a limited understanding of how these practices translate into higher academic achievement." Dismissive What effective schools do: Stretching the cognitive limits on achievement Education Next, FALL 2014 / VOL. 14, NO. 4 (2) PEPG funders http://educationnext.org/what-effective-schools-do-cognitive-achievement/  
26 Martin R. West Christopher F.O. Gabrieli, Amy S. Finn, Matthew A. Kraft, John D.E. Gabrieli "Despite decades of relying on standardized test scores to assess and guide education policy and practice, surprisingly little work has been done to connect these measures of learning with the measures developed over a century of research by cognitive psychologists studying individual differences in cognition." Dismissive What effective schools do: Stretching the cognitive limits on achievement Education Next, FALL 2014 / VOL. 14, NO. 4 (2) PEPG funders http://educationnext.org/what-effective-schools-do-cognitive-achievement/  
27 Jay P. Greene   " [Diane] Ravitch is so reckless in her interpretation of evidence that she and anyone citing her would lack credibility in policy discussions with those possessing a passing familiarity with the research." p.80 Denigrating Historian Ravitch Trades Fact for Fiction Latest book indifferent to the standards of social science Education Next, Spring 2014, pp. 80–81    
28 Jay P. Greene   "The selective and faulty reading of evidence is so pervasive in Reign of Error that it would take a volume of equal or greater length just to document and rebut all the instances of it.", p.80 Denigrating Historian Ravitch Trades Fact for Fiction Latest book indifferent to the standards of social science Education Next, Spring 2014, pp. 80–81    
29 Jay P. Greene   "Ravitch, who has long been an effective polemicist, must have felt increasingly irrelevant and ignored over the last decade, as rigorous quantitative analyses, which she is not capable of producing or even understanding very well, increasingly displaced clever rhetoric as the primary mechanism for influencing education policy. She has, at least temporarily, regained the spotlight by appealing to a new audience indifferent to the standards of quality social science. With this new audience in mind, Reign of Error is not designed to be a thoughtful and balanced piece of social science.", p.80 Denigrating Historian Ravitch Trades Fact for Fiction Latest book indifferent to the standards of social science Education Next, Spring 2014, pp. 80–81    
30 Jay P. Greene   "Ravitch does not understand the direction of the potential bias from attrition. For anyone who knows the research literature, reading Ravitch is downright infuriating. But her devoted followers couldn’t care less. She gives voice to their suffering and crowns their preferred policy positions as the ones supported by “evidence,” so she must be right. This raises questions about Ravitch’s earlier historical scholarship.", p.81 Denigrating Historian Ravitch Trades Fact for Fiction Latest book indifferent to the standards of social science Education Next, Spring 2014, pp. 80–81    
31 Jay P. Greene   "Reign of Error reads like a string of her hyperventilating blog posts. Her Twitter obsession, launching 140-character missives on average every 46 minutes of her waking life, has reduced her prose to a preponderance of short, overly broad declarations with a good deal of contempt for disagreement. ...Aggrieved teachers deserve a better champion, one who can provide a fair and comprehensive reading of evidence.", p.81 Denigrating Historian Ravitch Trades Fact for Fiction Latest book indifferent to the standards of social science Education Next, Spring 2014, pp. 80–81    
32 Matthew M. Chingos Paul E. Peterson "Few experimental evaluations have estimated the long-term impacts of interventions taking place during the regular years of schooling." Dismissive The impact of school vouchers on college enrollment Education Next, SUMMER 2013 / VOL. 13, NO. 3 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-impact-of-school-vouchers-on-college-enrollment/
33 Matthew M. Chingos Paul E. Peterson "The scarcity of experimental studies of long-term outcomes is especially true when it comes to school voucher research." Dismissive The impact of school vouchers on college enrollment Education Next, SUMMER 2013 / VOL. 13, NO. 3 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-impact-of-school-vouchers-on-college-enrollment/
34 William G. Bowen Matthew M. Chingos, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "Despite the apparent potential of online learning to deliver high-quality instruction at reduced costs, there is very little rigorous evidence on learning outcomes for students receiving instruction online." Denigrating Online learning in higher education: Randomized trial compares hybrid learning to traditional course Education Next, Spring 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 2 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/online-learning-in-higher-education/
35 William G. Bowen Matthew M. Chingos, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren "Very few studies look at the use of online learning for large introductory courses at major public universities, for example, where the great majority of undergraduate students pursue either associate or baccalaureate degrees." Dismissive Online learning in higher education: Randomized trial compares hybrid learning to traditional course Education Next, Spring 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 2 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/online-learning-in-higher-education/
36 Gregory F. Branch Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin "Yet until very recently there was little rigorous research demonstrating the importance of principal quality for student outcomes, much less the specific practices that cause some principals to be more successful than others. As is often the case in education policy discussions, we have relied on anecdotes instead." Dismissive, Denigrating School leaders matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals Education Next, Winter 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/school-leaders-matter/
37 Gregory F. Branch Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin "Strong leadership is viewed as especially important for revitalization of failing schools. To date, however, this discussion has been largely uninformed by systematic analysis of principals’ impact on student outcomes." Dismissive, Denigrating School leaders matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals Education Next, Winter 2013 / Vol. 13, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/school-leaders-matter/
38 Thomas J. Kane   “This is as yet a ‘potential superpower’ of classroom observations, since there’s not a lot of evidence that providing such feedback leads to improved student outcomes.” 6th paragraph under “Classroom Practice” subhead Dismissive Capturing the Dimensions of Effective Teaching Education Next, Fall 2012, Vol. 12, No. 4 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/capturing-the-dimensions-of-effective-teaching/  
39 Eric S. Taylor John H. Tyler "...very little is known about how the availability of new information, or the experience of being evaluated, might change teacher effort and effectiveness." Dismissive Can teacher evaluation improve teaching? Evidence of systematic growth in the effectiveness of midcareer teachers Education Next, FALL 2012 / VOL. 12, NO. 4 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/can-teacher-evaluation-improve-teaching/  
40 Eric S. Taylor John H. Tyler "In short, there are good reasons to expect that well-designed teacher-evaluation programs could have a direct and lasting effect on individual teacher performance. To our knowledge, however, ours is the first study to test this hypothesis directly. 1stness Can teacher evaluation improve teaching? Evidence of systematic growth in the effectiveness of midcareer teachers Education Next, FALL 2012 / VOL. 12, NO. 4 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/can-teacher-evaluation-improve-teaching/  
41 David J. Deming   "Yet little research has been conducted to determine the effect of school quality on crime." Dismissive Does school choice reduce crime? Education Next, Spring 2012 / VOL. 12, NO. 2  Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/does-school-choice-reduce-crime/  
42 Finley Edwards   "Despite this attention, there is little rigorous evidence directly linking school start times and academic performance." Denigrating Do schools begin too early? The effect of start times on student achievement Education Next, Summer 2012 / VOL. 12, NO. 3 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/do-schools-begin-too-early/  
43 Sa Bui Steven Craig, Scott Imberman "Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs." Dismissive Poor results for high achievers: New evidence on the impact of gifted and talented programs Education Next, Winter 2012 / Vol. 12, No. 1 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/poor-results-for-high-achievers/ Many psychometricians work in the field of gifted program evaluations. Indeed, some specialize in it, and have created a large, robust research literature. One can find much of it at web sites such as "Hoagie's Gifted" and those for the gifted education research centers such as: Belin-Blank (in Iowa); Josephson (in Nevada); Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth (in Maryland); and Duke University's Talent Identification Program.
44 Sa Bui Steven Craig, Scott Imberman "To our knowledge, no existing studies offer convincing evidence on the causal effect of G&T programs on student achievement.  Our research begins to fill this gap with…" Dismissive Poor results for high achievers: New evidence on the impact of gifted and talented programs Education Next, Winter 2012 / Vol. 12, No. 1 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/poor-results-for-high-achievers/ Many psychometricians work in the field of gifted program evaluations. Indeed, some specialize in it, and have created a large, robust research literature. One can find much of it at web sites such as "Hoagie's Gifted" and those for the gifted education research centers such as: Belin-Blank (in Iowa); Josephson (in Nevada); Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth (in Maryland); and Duke University's Talent Identification Program.
45 Brian A. Jacob   "On this topic, debate has been vigorous but research almost nil,…" Dismissive Principled principals: New evidence from Chicago shows they fire the least effective teachers Education Next, Fall 2011 / Vol. 11, No. 4 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/principled-principals/ Relevant studies of the effects of varying types of incentive or the optimal structure of incentives include those of Kelley (1999); the *Southern Regional Education Board (1998); Trelfa (1998); Heneman (1998); Banta, Lund, Black & Oblander (1996); Brooks-Cooper, 1993; Eckstein & Noah (1993); Richards & Shen (1992); Jacobson (1992); Heyneman & Ransom (1992); *Levine & Lezotte (1990); Duran, 1989; *Crooks (1988); *Kulik & Kulik (1987); Corcoran & Wilson (1986); *Guskey & Gates (1986); Brook & Oxenham (1985); Oxenham (1984); Venezky & Winfield (1979); Brookover & Lezotte (1979); McMillan (1977); Abbott (1977); *Staats (1973); *Kazdin & Bootzin (1972); *O’Leary & Drabman (1971); Cronbach (1960); Hurlock (1925), and Zeng (2001). *Covers many studies; study is a research review, research synthesis, or meta-analysis.  Other researchers who, even prior to 2000, studied test-based incentive programs include Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales, Rechs, O’Leary, Drabman, Kaszdin, Bootzin, Staats, Cameron, Pierce, McMillan, Corcoran, Roueche, Kirk, Wheeler, Boylan, and Wilson. Moreover, the mastery learning/mastery testing experiments conducted from the 1960s through today varied incentives, frequency of tests, types of tests, and many other factors to determine the optimal structure of testing programs. Researchers included such notables as Bloom, Carroll, Keller, Block, Burns, Wentling, Anderson, Hymel, Kulik, Tierney, Cross, Okey, Guskey, Gates, and Jones.
46 Jay P. Greene Stuart Buck "High-quality research on this topic [merit pay] within the United States is sparse and results are mixed. Matt Springer and his colleagues … Ludgar Woessman … Daniel Goldhaber … Michael Podgursky ..." Denigrating Blocked, Diluted, and Co-opted Education Next, Spring 2011 (3) PEPG funders  
47 Martin R. West Michael Henderson, Matthew M. Chingos "The evidence on these questions available to date comes from small-scale studies of specific school districts, making it difficult to reach general conclusions about the degree to which parents and the public at large are well informed about the performance of local schools. We are now able to supplement that research with data from a nationally representative survey of parents and other adults conducted in 2009 under the auspices of Education Next and the Program on Education Policy and Governance (PEPG) at Harvard University." Dismissive, Denigrating Grading Schools: Can citizens tell a good school when they see one? Education Next, Fall 2010, p.61 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute    
48 Martin R. West Michael Henderson, Matthew M. Chingos "[Our] findings represent the first systematic evidence that Americans’ perception of the quality of their local public schools reflect publicly available information about the academic achievement of the students who attend them." 1stness Grading Schools: Can citizens tell a good school when they see one? Education Next, Fall 2010, p.67 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute    
49 Jonah E. Rockoff Benjamin B. Lockwood "To provide more rigorous evidence on the effect of middle schools on student achievement, we…" Denigrating Stuck in the middle: How and why middle schools harm student achievement Education Next, Fall 2010 / Vol. 10, No. 4 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/stuck-in-the-middle/  
50 Eric Hanushek   "Unfortunately, direct evidence on the distribution of teacher quality and its impact for disadvantaged students is hard to come by." p.47 Dismissive An effective teacher in every classroom Education Next, Summer 2010 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Haycock%2BHanushek%202010%20EdNext%2010%283%29.pdf  
51 Eric Hanushek   "An incentive approach must be the center-piece of improving teacher quality in urban schools ... Unfortunately, we have little experience with how to structure incentives." p.48  Dismissive An effective teacher in every classroom Education Next, Summer 2010 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Haycock%2BHanushek%202010%20EdNext%2010%283%29.pdf  
52 David E. Marcotte Benjamin Hansen "This is not to say that there is no interest in extending the school year. While there has been little solid evidence that doing so will improve learning outcomes, the idea is often endorsed." Denigrating Time for school? When the snow falls, test scores also drop Education Next, Winter 2010, Vol. 10, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute http://educationnext.org/time-for-school/  
53 David E. Marcotte Benjamin Hansen "...in 1994 included not one study on the impact of additional instruction on learning. Researchers at that time simply had little direct evidence to offer." Dismissive Time for school? When the snow falls, test scores also drop Education Next, Winter 2010, Vol. 10, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute http://educationnext.org/time-for-school/  
54 David E. Marcotte Benjamin Hansen "Among the first researchers to try to identify the impact of variation in instructional time were economists studying the effect of schooling on labor market outcomes such as earnings." 1stness Time for school? When the snow falls, test scores also drop Education Next, Winter 2010, Vol. 10, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute http://educationnext.org/time-for-school/  
55 Martin R. West Ludger Woessmann "Scholars have attempted to discern the effects of competition between the public and private sectors within the United States and in other countries, but no study, to our knowledge, has attempted to measure systematically the causal impact of competition by looking at variation across countries. Dismissive School choice international: Higher private school share boosts national test scores Education Next, Winter 2009 / Vol. 9, No. 1 (2) PEPG funders & Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/school-choice-international/  
56 C. Kirabo Jackson   "Cash incentives for high school students to perform better in school are growing in popularity, but we understand very little about them." Dismissive Cash for test scores: The impact of the Texas Advanced Placement incentive Program Education Next, Fall 2008 / Vol. 8, No. 4 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/cash-for-test-scores/  
57 Mike Petrilli   "... solid RFT [randomized field trials] studies exist in only a handful of areas in education—class-size reduction, early reading, vouchers ..." Dismissive The Key to Research Influence: Quality data and sound analysis matter, after all Education Next, Spring 2007 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute https://www.educationnext.org/files/ednext_20072_77.pdf Research conducted by US education professors has been problematic. But, bias has been at least as strong a factor in the degredation of education research as lack of competence or rigor. Throughout the past several decades competent and honest researchers have worked at education schools alongside the biased researchers. Their work may not have been promoted, but it is there and could have been found had this author and colleagues bothered to look. Moreover, there exists a century's worth of research in education by psychologists. By declaring that no good education research was ever conducted before the author and colleagues got involved, thousands of studies conducted by psychologists are dismissed as no good. For the record, pscyhology is an experimental science, and has been for over a century. Psychologists had been conducting randomized controlled experiments for a hundred years before economists started. 
58 Lars Lefgren Brian A. Jacob "While principals can and do judge teachers’ performance, however, there is little good evidence on the accuracy of their judgments. The research reported in this paper fills this gap." Dismissive, 1stness When principals rate teachers: the best--and the worst--stand out Education Next, Spring 2006 / Vol. 6, No. 2 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/whenprincipalsrateteachers/ The authors should have looked in the Industrial/Organizational Psychology (i.e., Personnel Psychology), for example Hunter & Schmidt's meta-analyses of the use of test instruments in personnel selection.
59 Thomas S. Dee Benjamin J. Keys "Despite widespread pessimism among educators about whether merit pay systems can effectively reward good teachers, most of the limited empirical evidence has been surprisingly positive." Dismissive Dollars and sense: What a Tennessee experiment tells us about merit pay Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/dollars-and-sense/
60 Thomas S. Dee   "However, we actually know very little about how differences between a teacher’s race and those of her students affect the learning environment. This study…" Dismissive The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
61 Thomas S. Dee   "However, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence on the relationship between students’ exposure to teachers of their own race and their subsequent academic performance." Dismissive The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
62 Thomas S. Dee   "And the available studies, all of which rely on observational data to compare the test scores of students with different kinds of teachers, actually find that having a teacher of the same race has little impact. However, the inferences based on conventional data sets could be quite misleading. For example, if lower-performing black students are more likely to be assigned to black teachers, the effects of such teachers will be underestimated." Denigrating The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
63 Thomas S. Dee   "This study presents new evidence on the test-score consequences of a teacher’s race by…" 1stness The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, Winter 2005 / Vol. 5, No. 1 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-race-connection/
64 Maurice E. Lucas David N. Figlio "With reports that some of the nation’s finest universities have been handing out A’s like lollipops at Halloween, the lowering of standards in higher education has become a hot topic. But grading standards in primary and secondary education have received remarkably less attention." Dismissive The gentleman's A: New evidence on the effects of grade inflation Education Next, Spring 2004 / Vol. 4, No. 2 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-gentlemans-a/ See a review of hundreds of studies:  Brookhart et al. (2016) A Century of Grading Research: A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., Bowers, A. J., McMillan, J. H., Smith, J. K., Smith, L. F., Stevens, M.T., Welsh, M. E. (2016). A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.
doi: 10.3102/0034654316672069   http://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316672069
65 Maurice E. Lucas David N. Figlio "There are two major questions related to grading standards. First, to what degree do the grades distributed by schools and teachers correspond to their students’ performance on state and national exams? Second, and more important, how does “tough” or “easy” grading affect students’ learning? The literature on these questions is extremely thin. Dismissive The gentleman's A: New evidence on the effects of grade inflation Education Next, Spring 2004 / Vol. 4, No. 2 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-gentlemans-a/ See a review of hundreds of studies:  Brookhart et al. (2016) A Century of Grading Research: A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., Bowers, A. J., McMillan, J. H., Smith, J. K., Smith, L. F., Stevens, M.T., Welsh, M. E. (2016). A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.
doi: 10.3102/0034654316672069   http://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316672069
66 Maurice E. Lucas David N. Figlio "In fact, to our knowledge, the analysis presented here represents the first study to examine the grading standards of individual teachers and how those standards affect students’ performance on independent exams." 1stness The gentleman's A: New evidence on the effects of grade inflation Education Next, Spring 2004 / Vol. 4, No. 2 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute http://educationnext.org/the-gentlemans-a/ See a review of hundreds of studies:  Brookhart et al. (2016) A Century of Grading Research: A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., Bowers, A. J., McMillan, J. H., Smith, J. K., Smith, L. F., Stevens, M.T., Welsh, M. E. (2016). A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.
doi: 10.3102/0034654316672069   http://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316672069
67 Steven D. Levitt Brian A. Jacob "These scandals have aroused public concern, but there has been little hard evidence on the extent of cheating by school personnel on the type of tests required by recently enacted accountability legislation." Dismissive To catch a cheat Education Next, Winter 2004 / Vol. 4, No. 1 Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/tocatchacheat/ See, for example, https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Articles/v6n3.htm ; https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Books/CannellBook1.htm
68 Brian A. Jacob   "Chicago’s experience with accountability provides  some  lessons  for  other  districts and states as they begin to implement  the  mandates  of  No  Child  Left Behind." Dismissive High Stakes in Chicago Education Next, v.1., p.66, 2003. Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/highstakesinchicago/ https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Foundation/ThinkTankThoughtlessness.htm ; per usual for such studies, there were no controls for any variation in test administration procedures
69 Brian A. Jacob   "As the first large urban school district to introduce a comprehensive accountability system, [our city] provides an exceptional case study of the effects of high-stakes testing--a reform strategy that will become omnipresent as the No Child Left Behind Act is implemented nationwide." 1stness High Stakes in Chicago Education Next, v.1., p.66, 2003. Harvard PEPG and Thomas B. Fordham Institute http://educationnext.org/highstakesinchicago/ https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Foundation/ThinkTankThoughtlessness.htm ; per usual for such studies, there were no controls for any variation in test administration procedures
70 Daniel D. Goldhaber   [R]elatively few studies that address students’ outcomes observe the professional norm of having detailed controls for students’ background characteristics (including previous academic achievement).” p. 53 Denigrating The Mystery of Good Teaching Education Next, Spring 2002 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED400237.pdf  
71 Daniel D. Goldhaber   “Hoover Institution senior fellow Eric Hanushek showed that only a small proportion of studies find these teacher characteristics to be statistically significant in the expected direction.” p. 53 Dismissive The Mystery of Good Teaching Education Next, Spring 2002 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED400237.pdf  
72 Daniel D. Goldhaber   “There are also statistical shortcomings in many of the studies cited by both Hanushek and Greenwald et al.” p. 53 Denigrating The Mystery of Good Teaching Education Next, Spring 2002 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute http://educationnext.org/files/ednext20021_50.pdf  
73 Daniel D. Goldhaber   “But only four of these studies were based on students’ outcomes and most of them were more than 25 years old, which means they predated the ‘value added’ methodology of assessing educational effects that is now standard practice.” p. 54 Denigrating The Mystery of Good Teaching Education Next, Spring 2002 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED400237.pdf  
74 Daniel D. Goldhaber   “[T]here is little research directly assessing the influence of pedagogical training on student outcomes, . . . .”  p. 54 Dismissive The Mystery of Good Teaching Education Next, Spring 2002 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED400237.pdf  
75 Daniel D. Goldhaber   “As Carolyn Evertson and her colleagues write, ‘Investigations of teacher education do not represent a strong body of research.’” p. 54 Denigrating The Mystery of Good Teaching Education Next, Spring 2002 Harvard Kennedy School; Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Institute http://educationnext.org/files/ednext20021_50.pdf  
               
    Author cites (and accepts without checking) someone elses dismissive review          
    Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work          
    Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.