Author Co-author(s) Dismissive Quote type Title Source Link1 Link2
1 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson Despite this rapid growth in the charter sector, little is known about the views of parents who are making use of these schools. Dismissive What do parents think of their children's schools? Education Next, Spring 2017 / Vol. 17, No. 2 http://educationnext.org/what-do-parents-think-of-childrens-schools-ednext-private-district-charter/  
2 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson To our knowledge, this study, together with a companion investigation by Albert Cheng and Paul E. Peterson (see “How Satisfied are Parents with Their Children’s Schools?” features, Spring 2017), are the first to report results from nationally representative surveys of parents in these three sectors. 1stness What do parents think of their children's schools? Education Next, Spring 2017 / Vol. 17, No. 2 http://educationnext.org/what-do-parents-think-of-childrens-schools-ednext-private-district-charter/  
3 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson As mentioned, there is no published comparison of parental perceptions of school life across the charter, district, and private sectors nationwide. Dismissive What do parents think of their children's schools? Education Next, Spring 2017 / Vol. 17, No. 2 http://educationnext.org/what-do-parents-think-of-childrens-schools-ednext-private-district-charter/  
4 Martin R. West Matthew A. Kraft, Amy S. Finn, Rebecca Martin, Angela L. Duckworth, Christopher F.O. Gabrieli, John D. E. Gabrieli As practice and policy race forward, however, research on non-cognitive skills remains in its infancy. There is little agreement on which skills are most important, how they can be reliably measured, and their malleability in school settings.  Dismissive Promise and Paradox: Measuring Students’ Non-cognitive Skills and the Impact of Schooling, p.2 CESifo Area Conference on the Economics of Education, 12-13, September, 2014    
5 Martin R. West Matthew A. Kraft, Amy S. Finn, Rebecca Martin, Angela L. Duckworth, Christopher F.O. Gabrieli, John D. E. Gabrieli Absent consensus on these points, educators cannot rely on available measures of non-cognitive skills or their underlying theories of personal development to assess and support individual students or to evaluate the success of schools, teachers, or interventions. As if to illustrate this dilemma, the California consortium applying to develop its own accountability system noted only that the specific social-emotional measures used in school ratings would be determined later. Dismissive Promise and Paradox: Measuring Students’ Non-cognitive Skills and the Impact of Schooling, p.2 CESifo Area Conference on the Economics of Education, 12-13, September, 2014    
6 Martin R. West   "As practice and policy race forward, however, research on non-cognitive skills remains in its infancy. There is little agreement on which skills are most important, their stability within the same individual in different contexts, and, perhaps most fundamentally, how they can be reliably measured." Dismissive The Limitations of Self-Report Measures of Non-cognitive Skills Brookings Institution, The Brown Center Chalkboard Series Archive | Number 92 of 115 http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2014/12/18-chalkboard-non-cognitive-west  
7 Martin R. West   "To illustrate ... I draw on cross-sectional data from a sample of Boston students discussed in detail in a recent working paper. Colleagues from Harvard, MIT, and the University of Pennsylvania and I used self-report surveys to gather information on non-cognitive skills from more than 1,300 eighth-grade students..." Dismissive The Limitations of Self-Report Measures of Non-cognitive Skills Brookings Institution, The Brown Center Chalkboard Series Archive | Number 92 of 115 http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2014/12/18-chalkboard-non-cognitive-west  
8 Martin R. West   "…the first hard evidence on virtual education." 1stness commenting on Chingos, 2014      
9 Martin R. West   "…the first credible evidence on the effects of online courses on student achievement in K-12 schools." 1stness commenting on Chingos, 2014      
10 Martin R. West Guido Schwerdt “While all of these factors could plausibly influence student outcomes, the literature on differences in student achievement across countries (Hanushek and Woessmann 2011) has largely ignored the issue of grade configuration.” p.1 Dismissive The Impact of Alternative Grade Configurations on Student Outcomes through Middle and High School Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series, 2011, PEPG 11-02. http://www.edweek.org/media/gradeconfiguration-13structure.pdf  
11 Martin R. West Guido Schwerdt “The absence of compelling alternative explanations for the negative effects of middle school attendance suggests that adolescents may be more difficult to educate in settings that do not contain younger students.” p.3 Dismissive The Impact of Alternative Grade Configurations on Student Outcomes through Middle and High School Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series, 2011, PEPG 11-02. http://www.edweek.org/media/gradeconfiguration-13structure.pdf  
12 Martin R. West Guido Schwerdt Research on the causal effect of alternative grade configurations through middle and high school is limited.” p.4 Dismissive The Impact of Alternative Grade Configurations on Student Outcomes through Middle and High School Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series, 2011, PEPG 11-02. http://www.edweek.org/media/gradeconfiguration-13structure.pdf  
13 Martin R. West Guido Schwerdt “These differences are relatively modest in size, however, and we are unaware of any research suggesting that the practices in question are related to student achievement gains.” p.21 Dismissive The Impact of Alternative Grade Configurations on Student Outcomes through Middle and High School Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series, 2011, PEPG 11-02. http://www.edweek.org/media/gradeconfiguration-13structure.pdf  
14 Martin R. West Guido Schwerdt “More research is needed to explain the negative effects of middle schools. In the meantime, however, the lack of a definitive explanation should make policymakers cautious about their ability to take steps to mitigate these effects while maintaining existing grade configurations.” p.23 Dismissive The Impact of Alternative Grade Configurations on Student Outcomes through Middle and High School Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series, 2011, PEPG 11-02. http://www.edweek.org/media/gradeconfiguration-13structure.pdf  
15 Martin R. West Thomas Dee “Yet while numerous researchers have hypothesized that smaller classes could improve non-cognitive skills, there exists little reliable evidence on their effects on these types of outcomes.” p.2 Dismissive The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis 33,no. 1: 23-46 (2011) http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9544458/WEST%20paper%20EEPA%2010-27-10.pdf?sequence=1  
16 Martin R. West Thomas Dee “This identification strategy, which to our knowledge is new to the literature on class size, closely parallels the approach used to evaluate data from identical twin pairs (e.g., Ashenfelter and Krueger, 1994; Ashenfelter and Rouse, 1998; and Rouse, 1999).” p.2 1stness The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis 33,no. 1: 23-46 (2011) http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9544458/WEST%20paper%20EEPA%2010-27-10.pdf?sequence=1  
17 Martin R. West Thomas Dee “The potential contributions of class-size reductions to the development of economically relevant non-cognitive skills have been largely missing from this debate.” p.4 Dismissive The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis 33,no. 1: 23-46 (2011) http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9544458/WEST%20paper%20EEPA%2010-27-10.pdf?sequence=1  
18 Martin R. West Thomas Dee “However, there is little direct evidence on whether smaller classes actually improve non-cognitive skills.” p.5 Dismissive The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis 33,no. 1: 23-46 (2011) http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9544458/WEST%20paper%20EEPA%2010-27-10.pdf?sequence=1  
19 Martin R. West Thomas Dee “The lack of evidence on whether smaller classes improve non-cognitive skills is [an] important gap in the literature. . . .” p.5 Dismissive The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis 33,no. 1: 23-46 (2011) http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9544458/WEST%20paper%20EEPA%2010-27-10.pdf?sequence=1  
20 Martin R. West Thomas Dee “The lack of evidence on whether smaller classes improve non-cognitive skills is [an] important gap in the literature because of the growing recognition that such skills play a vital but underappreciated role in long-term academic and economic success.” p.5 Dismissive The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis 33,no. 1: 23-46 (2011) http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9544458/WEST%20paper%20EEPA%2010-27-10.pdf?sequence=1  
21 Martin R. West Thomas Dee “However, relatively little is known about whether smaller classes actually improve such skills.” p.9 Dismissive The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis 33,no. 1: 23-46 (2011) http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9544458/WEST%20paper%20EEPA%2010-27-10.pdf?sequence=1  
22 Martin R. West Thomas Dee “This type of correlational evidence raises important identification problems which, as in similar studies, are not addressed here.” p.24 Dismissive The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis 33,no. 1: 23-46 (2011) http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9544458/WEST%20paper%20EEPA%2010-27-10.pdf?sequence=1  
23 Martin R. West Thomas Dee “However, the research base has provided more limited and sometimes conflicting evidence on the likely cost-effectiveness of broad class-size reductions.” p.31 Denigrating The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis 33,no. 1: 23-46 (2011) http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9544458/WEST%20paper%20EEPA%2010-27-10.pdf?sequence=1  
24 Martin R. West Thomas Dee “This study addressed one of the most important gaps in this literature by examining the effects of class size on non-cognitive student outcomes that appear to have important educational and labor-market implications.” p.31 Dismissive The non-cognitive returns to class size Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis 33,no. 1: 23-46 (2011) http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9544458/WEST%20paper%20EEPA%2010-27-10.pdf?sequence=1  
25 Martin R. West Matthew M. Chingos “[T]there is little direct evidence that administrators’ ability to recognize teacher effectiveness influences their personnel decisions.” p. 2 Dismissive Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness? Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-21), Dec. 2010  http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-21_chingos_west.pdf  
26 Martin R. West Matthew M. Chingos Evidence on principal effects on student achievement is limited. . . .” p. 2 Dismissive Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness? Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-21), Dec. 2010  http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-21_chingos_west.pdf  
27 Martin R. West Matthew M. Chingos “[T]he coefficients on the control variables (reported in Appendix Table 2) also provide what is to our knowledge the first evidence from a statewide database on the correlates of entry into positions of school leadership.” p. 17 1stness Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness? Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-21), Dec. 2010  http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-21_chingos_west.pdf  
28 Martin R. West Matthew M. Chingos “The results presented above represent the first systematic evidence on the relationship between teacher effectiveness and job transitions within public school districts.” p. 22 1stness Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness? Program on Education Policy and Governance, Working Papers Series (PEPG 10-21), Dec. 2010  http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-21_chingos_west.pdf  
29 Martin R. West Matthew M. Chingos “There is a substantial literature on the correlates of teacher retention but far less research on the link between retention and effectiveness. Indeed, to our knowledge, only three studies have examined the relationship between mobility and attrition patterns and teacher quality using direct measures of teachers’ classroom effectiveness. pp. 1-2 Dismissive Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida Chapter 11 in Matthew G. Springer, ed., Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K-12 Education, Brookings Institution Press, 2009 http://www.mattchingos.com/West-Chingos_prepub.pdf  
30 Martin R. West Matthew M. Chingos “This chapter, which presents a descriptive analysis of the early career paths of new elementary school teachers in the state of Florida from 2001–02 to 2005–06, extends this emerging line of research in several ways.” p.2 1stness Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida Chapter 11 in Matthew G. Springer, ed., Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K-12 Education, Brookings Institution Press, 2009 http://www.mattchingos.com/West-Chingos_prepub.pdf  
31 Martin R. West Matthew M. Chingos “While much more research is needed on the extent to which teachers respond to the incentives created by such policies, combining the two approaches—for example, by offering larger performance incentives in hard-to-staff schools—may represent a promising approach to improving both overall teacher quality and the allocation of the most effective teachers across schools.” p.19 Dismissive Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida Chapter 11 in Matthew G. Springer, ed., Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K-12 Education, Brookings Institution Press, 2009 http://www.mattchingos.com/West-Chingos_prepub.pdf  
32 Martin R. West Ludger Wößmann, Elke Lüdemann, Gabriela Schütz “There is little research on possible effects of school autonomy on equity, be it theoretical or empirical.” p.25 Dismissive “School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and the Level of Student Achievement: International Evidence from PISA 2003” OECD Education Working Papers, No. 14, OECDPublishing (2007) http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/5kzsnsx1mv30.pdf?expires=1441474837&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=2CA235918B9971BFA98DDB7684BEA5ED  
33 Martin R. West Ludger Wößmann, Elke Lüdemann, Gabriela Schütz “The available cross-country evidence on the effects of choice on student achievement is limited to the effects of private involvement in the operation and financing of schools.” p.42   Dismissive “School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and the Level of Student Achievement: International Evidence from PISA 2003” OECD Education Working Papers , No. 13, September 2007 http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/5kzsnsx1mv30.pdf?expires=1441474837&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=2CA235918B9971BFA98DDB7684BEA5ED  
34 Martin R. West Ludger Wößmann, Elke Lüdemann, Gabriela Schütz “Just as importantly, however, studies that compare the relative performance of private and public schools within a country may miss an important aspect of the effect of choice, because the competition created by private schools may affect the performance of nearby public schools.” p.43  Dismissive “School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and the Level of Student Achievement: International Evidence from PISA 2003” OECD Education Working Papers , No. 13, September 2007 http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/5kzsnsx1mv30.pdf?expires=1441474837&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=2CA235918B9971BFA98DDB7684BEA5ED  
35 Martin R. West Ludger Wößmann, Elke Lüdemann, Gabriela Schütz “Although the importance of non-cognitive skills for labor market outcomes is by now well- established, there is very little evidence available on how policy shapes the development of those skills (Deke and Haimson 2006).” p.53  Dismissive “School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and the Level of Student Achievement: International Evidence from PISA 2003” OECD Education Working Papers , No. 13, September 2007 http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/5kzsnsx1mv30.pdf?expires=1441474837&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=2CA235918B9971BFA98DDB7684BEA5ED  
36 Martin R. West Ludger Wößmann, Elke Lüdemann, Gabriela Schütz “Non-cognitive skills are difficult to define and to measure, which may help explain their neglect in analyses of earnings, schooling, and other lifetime outcomes.” p.54 Denigrating “School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and the Level of Student Achievement: International Evidence from PISA 2003” OECD Education Working Papers , No. 13, September 2007 http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/5kzsnsx1mv30.pdf?expires=1441474837&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=2CA235918B9971BFA98DDB7684BEA5ED  
37 Martin R. West   Unfortunately, solid data to address these questions are scarce. Although the proliferation of state and federal testing programs has yielded an abundance of information about what American students know, our knowledge of what they are taught remains fragmentary and incomplete. Below, I present new information on trends between 1988 and 2004 in the amount of time elementary school teachers nationwide spent on instruction in each of four core academic subjects. The information, which is based on teacher self-reports, provides new insights...  Dismissive "Testing, Learning, and Teaching: The Effects of Test-based Accountability on Student Achievement and Instructional Time in Core Academic Subjects" Beyond the Basics: Achieving a Liberal Education for All Children, Chester E. Finn, Jr., and Diane Ravitch (Eds.), Thomas B. Fordham Institute, July 2007, pp. 45-62 http://www.edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2007/200707_beyondthebasics/Beyond_The_Basics_West.pdf  
38 Martin R. West   Moreover, there is no credible evidence that testing reduces achievement in tested subjects. Dismissive "Testing, Learning, and Teaching: The Effects of Test-based Accountability on Student Achievement and Instructional Time in Core Academic Subjects" Beyond the Basics: Achieving a Liberal Education for All Children, Chester E. Finn, Jr., and Diane Ravitch (Eds.), Thomas B. Fordham Institute, July 2007, pp. 45-62 http://www.edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2007/200707_beyondthebasics/Beyond_The_Basics_West.pdf  
39 Martin R. West   Unfortunately, so far little systematic evidence has been available on the amount of instruction actually delivered in core academic subjects, information that is essential to determine the extent to which administrator surveys and anecdotal reports accurately portray the experiences of most American students.
To remedy this gap, Table 1 presents data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS)... 
Dismissive, Denigrating "Testing, Learning, and Teaching: The Effects of Test-based Accountability on Student Achievement and Instructional Time in Core Academic Subjects" Beyond the Basics: Achieving a Liberal Education for All Children, Chester E. Finn, Jr., and Diane Ravitch (Eds.), Thomas B. Fordham Institute, July 2007, pp. 45-62 http://www.edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2007/200707_beyondthebasics/Beyond_The_Basics_West.pdf  
40 Martin R. West   Discussions of curricular narrowing as a result of NCLB have taken place in an empirical vacuum, which the instructional time data presented here can only incompletely fill.More important, while teachers may report that they are spending 2.6 hours each week on history or social studies, we still have little idea of how well those hours are being spent. Dismissive "Testing, Learning, and Teaching: The Effects of Test-based Accountability on Student Achievement and Instructional Time in Core Academic Subjects" Beyond the Basics: Achieving a Liberal Education for All Children, Chester E. Finn, Jr., and Diane Ravitch (Eds.), Thomas B. Fordham Institute, July 2007, pp. 45-62 http://www.edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2007/200707_beyondthebasics/Beyond_The_Basics_West.pdf  
41 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson, Martin R. West (Ed.), Paul E. Peterson (Ed.) “As a disclaimer in one such study puts it, “No existing research demonstrates a straightforward relationship between how much is spent to provide education services and performance, whether of student, school, or school district.“ p. 11 Dismissive School Money Trials: The Legal Pursuit of Educational Adequacy Brookings, 2007 Google Books  
42 Martin R. West Frederick M. Hess “Unfortunately, because this development [teacher collective bargaining] preceded the collection of reliable national data on academic outcomes, observers looking for empirical explanations of how it affected student performance will remain disappointed by research findings.” p.16 Dismissive A Better Bargain: Overhauling Teacher Collective Bargaining for the 21st Century Program on Education Policy and Governance, March 29, 2006 http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498038.pdf See http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/events.htm – presented at “event” with Mitt Romney?
43 Martin R. West Frederick M. Hess “Even in those states that specifically prohibit bargaining, however, there is little evidence that districts have sought to design compensation schemes, working conditions, or terms of service in significantly different ways.” p.17, Sidebar 3, Labor Relations in Non-Bargaining States Dismissive A Better Bargain: Overhauling Teacher Collective Bargaining for the 21st Century Program on Education Policy and Governance, March 29, 2006 http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498038.pdf See http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/events.htm – presented at “event” with Mitt Romney?“Little evidence” in the literature or in mere uncollected data?
44 Martin R. West Frederick M. Hess “While this approach [mayoral control of school districts] holds some promise in some locales, there is no evidence that mayoral takeovers of school districts have predictable or consistent effects.” p.47 Dismissive A Better Bargain: Overhauling Teacher Collective Bargaining for the 21st Century Program on Education Policy and Governance, March 29, 2006 http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498038.pdf See http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/events.htm – presented at “event” with Mitt Romney?“No evidence” in the literature or in mere uncollected data?
45 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson “However, these early studies were typically limited by the fact that the scholars had access only to school-level data, not the test scores and demographic characteristics of individual students (Chakrabarti, 2004; Greene, 2001; Greene and Winters, 2003).” p.1 Denigrating The Efficacy of Choice Threats within School Accountability Systems: Results from Legislatively Induced Experiments August 2004 draft. Appeared in The Economic Journal 116 (510), March 2006 https://www2.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2006/0108_1015_0601.pdf  
46 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson “To our knowledge, no studies have examined the effects on school performance of the public school choice provisions of No Child Left Behind.” p.1  Dismissive The Efficacy of Choice Threats within School Accountability Systems: Results from Legislatively Induced Experiments August 2004 draft. Appeared in The Economic Journal 116 (510), March 2006 https://www2.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2006/0108_1015_0601.pdf  
47 Martin R. West Paul E. Peterson “The result is the first comprehensive scholarly assessment of the issues to be faced as No Child Left Behind is implemented by states and localities.” p.vii 1stness No Child Left Behind?: The Politics and Practice of School Accountability Brookings, 2003 Google Books  
48 Martin R. West David E. Campbell, Paul E. Peterson “Predictably, the findings of this research tend to be most consistent with the “creamskimming” perspective outlined above.” p.3 Dismissive Participation in a National, Means-Tested School Voucher Program Paper prepared for presentation at the annual conference of Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, November 6–8, 2003, Washington, D.C. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.168.5372&rep=rep1&type=pdf  
49 Martin R. West David E. Campbell, Paul E. Peterson “Such research, however, leaves open the question of whether choice within the public sector resembles choice between the public and private sectors.” p.2 Dismissive Participation in a National, Means-Tested School Voucher Program Paper prepared for presentation at the annual conference of Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, November 6–8, 2003, Washington, D.C. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.168.5372&rep=rep1&type=pdf  
50 Martin R. West David E. Campbell, Paul E. Peterson “To our knowledge, it is the first study to offer separate multivariate analyses of the determinants of application to a voucher program and actual voucher use.” p.3 1stness Participation in a National, Means-Tested School Voucher Program Paper prepared for presentation at the annual conference of Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, November 6–8, 2003, Washington, D.C. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.168.5372&rep=rep1&type=pdf  
51 Martin R. West David E. Campbell, Paul E. Peterson “One factor that has been largely ignored in the previous literature is simply the prevalence of private schools within a community.” p.13 Dismissive Participation in a National, Means-Tested School Voucher Program Paper prepared for presentation at the annual conference of Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, November 6–8, 2003, Washington, D.C. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.168.5372&rep=rep1&type=pdf  
52 Martin R. West David E. Campbell, Paul E. Peterson “The empirical examination of this question, however, has been hampered by the fact that previous analyses of voucher programs have been restricted to individual cities, severely limiting variation in the racial composition of the public schools.” p.14 Denigrating Participation in a National, Means-Tested School Voucher Program Paper prepared for presentation at the annual conference of Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, November 6–8, 2003, Washington, D.C. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.168.5372&rep=rep1&type=pdf  
53 Martin R. West David E. Campbell, Paul E. Peterson “Models similar to this one can be found in the literature (Witte 2000), but are biased without correcting for the use of a choice-based sample.” p.17 Denigrating Participation in a National, Means-Tested School Voucher Program Paper prepared for presentation at the annual conference of Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, November 6–8, 2003, Washington, D.C. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.168.5372&rep=rep1&type=pdf  
54 Martin R. West Ludger Wößmann [M]ost previous research [on endogeneity in the relationship between class sizeand student achievement] has concerned itself with the placement policies responsible only insofar as they mask the true causalimpact of class size on achievement. . . .” p.1 Denigrating Which School Systems Sort Weaker Students into Smaller Classes? International Evidence CESIFO Working Paper No. 1054Category 4: Labour MarketsOctober 2003 http://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/76493/1/cesifo_wp1054.pdf  
55 Martin R. West Ludger Wößmann “There is scant empirical evidence available on efficiency in the assignment of students to small and large classes.” p.20 Dismissive Which School Systems Sort Weaker Students into Smaller Classes? International Evidence CESIFO Working Paper No. 1054Category 4: Labour MarketsOctober 2003 http://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/76493/1/cesifo_wp1054.pdf  
56 Martin R. West Ludger Wößmann “Data on performance and class size at the beginning of a school year would mitigate this problem, but no such data exist for a large cross-section of countries.” p.6, note 5 Dismissive Which School Systems Sort Weaker Students into Smaller Classes? International Evidence CESIFO Working Paper No. 1054Category 4: Labour MarketsOctober 2003 http://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/76493/1/cesifo_wp1054.pdf  
57 Martin R. West Christopher Berry “The emerging literature on the effects of school size on student outcomes speaks only obliquely to the pre-1970 period (Andrews et al. 2002; Cotton 1996).” p.3 Denigrating Growing Pains: The School Consolidation Movement And Student Outcomes Harris School Working Paper Series (July 2003) http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG05-04%20Berry%20West.pdf  
58 Martin R. West Christopher Berry “A yet smaller literature on the effects of school quality before 1970 on labor market outcomes ignores consolidation entirely (e.g., Card and Krueger 1992).”“ p. 3 Denigrating Growing Pains: The School Consolidation Movement And Student Outcomes Harris School Working Paper Series (July 2003) http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG05-04%20Berry%20West.pdf  
59 Martin R. West Christopher Berry “The literature on the effects of district size on student outcomes is smaller and less consistent in its findings.” p.10 Dismissive Growing Pains: The School Consolidation Movement And Student Outcomes Harris School Working Paper Series (July 2003) http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG05-04%20Berry%20West.pdf  
60 Martin R. West Christopher Berry “The literature on the effects of district size on student outcomes is smaller and less consistent in its findings.” p.10 Dismissive Growing Pains: The School Consolidation Movement And Student Outcomes Harris School Working Paper Series (July 2003) http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG05-04%20Berry%20West.pdf  
61 Martin R. West Christopher Berry “A key shortcoming of the recent literature on school and district size and student outcomes. . . .” p.10 Denigrating Growing Pains: The School Consolidation Movement And Student Outcomes Harris School Working Paper Series (July 2003) http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG05-04%20Berry%20West.pdf  
62 Martin R. West Christopher Berry “ . . . general inattention to methodological challenges inherent in the estimation of economies of size.” p.10 Denigrating Growing Pains: The School Consolidation Movement And Student Outcomes Harris School Working Paper Series (July 2003) http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG05-04%20Berry%20West.pdf  
63 Martin R. West Christopher Berry “Although many individual level studies have found positive effects of school size on various student outcomes (Cotton 1996), none has focused on earnings.” p.36 Denigrating Growing Pains: The School Consolidation Movement And Student Outcomes Harris School Working Paper Series (July 2003) http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG05-04%20Berry%20West.pdf  
64 Martin R. West Ludger Wößmann “As a consequence, studies using this kind of identification strategy are also only available for a few countries and situations.” p.2 Dismissive Class-Size Effects in School Systems Around the World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS March 26, 2002. Appeared in European Economic Review, Vol. 50, No. 3, April 2006, pp. 695–736 http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG02-02.pdf  
65 Martin R. West Ludger Wößmann “As a result, naēve estimates of education production functions may be biased both by endogeneity of class size with respect to student performance and by omitted variables” p.1  Denigrating Class-Size Effects in School Systems Around the World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS March 26, 2002. Appeared in European Economic Review, Vol. 50, No. 3, April 2006, pp. 695–736 http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG02-02.pdf  
66 Martin R. West Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson “Initially, studies of many of these programs were limited by the quality of the data or the research procedures employed. . . . As a result, the quality of the data collected was not as high as researchers normally would prefer.” p.7 Denigrating Results of a School Voucher Experiment: The Case of Washington, D.C. after Two Years Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association (San Francisco  August 30-September 2, 2001) http://www.innovations.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/4991.pdf  
               
IRONIES              
Erik A. Hanushek Martin R. West (Ed.), Paul E. Peterson (Ed.) “Presumably they realize that their selective reporting of evidence yields reports that are not credible. . . .” p.95   School Money Trials: The Legal Pursuit of Educational Adequacy Brookings, 2007 Google Books  
Author cites (and accepts without checking) someone elses dismissive review
Cite selves or colleagues in the group, but dismiss or denigrate all other work
Falsely claim that research has only recently been done on topic.